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APA Style

Jody Bailey, 2016

APA: The Inside ScoopJody BaileyDirector of PublishingLiaison Librarian to Linguistics and TESOLUniversity of Texas at Arlington Librariesjbailey@uta.edu

Jody Bailey, 2016

My Experience10 years as a professional copyeditor for APA, both in-house and as a freelancer.5 years of teaching writing at LSU and VA Tech.7 years as a reference/instruction librarian here at UTA.

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APA Publication Manual, 6th edition

Be sure you are buying a copy that says Second printing August 2009 or Third printing: October 2009. Do NOT buy a copy that says First printing!Jody Bailey, 2016

Jody Bailey, 2016

Writing Style: The BasicsHaving trouble with expressing ideas? Read APAs Publication Manual, 6th ed. (PM), pp. 65-70. Main topics: continuity in presentation of ideas, smoothness of expression, tone, economy of expression, and precision and clarity. See also grammar and usage (active/passive verbs, s/v agreement, pronouns, misplaced or dangling modifiers, relative pronouns, and parallelism; PM, pp. 77-86).

Jody Bailey, 2016

Can You Spot the Problem?The criteria we used to determine inclusion is shown in Table 1. The students whom we found scored below average were in Group A.The group of participants who we classified as the youngest was tested first.The experiment tested the participants following this method.Before testing the participants, the control group was evaluated.

Jody Bailey, 2016

Writing Style: Reducing BiasVery important! Avoid bias on the basis of gender, sexual orientation, racial/ethnic identity, disability, and age. Avoid the + adjective (e.g., the elderly; PM, pp. 71-77).Main point: Always call people what they wish to be called (e.g., Hispanic or Latino?), and always put the person before the disability or disorder (e.g., people with disabilities not the disabled and especially not the wheelchair-bound!).

Mechanics of StyleReview all punctuation usage (PM, pp. 87-96). Important! APA uses the serial comma.Spelling: House dictionary is Merriam-Websters Collegiate (2005). See Table 4.2 (PM, p. 99) for nonhyphenated prefixes/suffixes.Review capitalization (PM, pp. 101-104), italics (PM, pp. 104-106), and abbreviation rules (PM, pp. 106-111).Jody Bailey, 2016

Mechanics: NumbersUse numerals: all numbers 10+, numbers that precede units of measurement, statistical/math functions, time, dates, ages, scores, points on a scale, money (PM, pp. 111-112).Use words: numbers at start of sentence, common fractions, universally accepted usage (PM, 112).Ordinals: use same rules as cardinals.Use metric system for measurements (PM, pp. 114-115).Statistical and mathematical copy (PM, pp. 116-124).Jody Bailey, 2016

Heading Styles (PM, p. 62)Jody Bailey, 2016

Jody Bailey, 2016

In-Text CitationsThe PMs section on in-text citations is extremely helpful (pp. 174-179). See also Table 6.1 (PM, p. 177).Examples:Walker and Bailey (2000) compared reaction times.In a recent study of reaction times (Walker & Bailey, 2000) . . . .Two authors? Cite both names every time.Three to five authors? Cite all names the first time, then cite only the first author followed by et al. on subsequent citations.Six or more authors? Cite only the first author followed by et al. on all citations.Always include the year in parenthetical citations. Provide page number if info comes from specific place in your text or if you are quoting.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)Provides a means of persistent identification for managing information on digital networks (PM, p. 188)A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string . . . to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet (PM, p. 189)DOI is analogous to ISBN. Watch this video to learn how to find the DOI.

Jody Bailey, 2016

Jody Bailey, 2016

Reference ListIf a source has a DOI, always use it, no matter what type of source it is!Periodical (print OR online):Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (2007). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxx-xxx. doi:xx-xxxxxxxxxOnline periodical with no DOI:Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (2000). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxx-xxx. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx

URL of open-access article or periodicals home page

Jody Bailey, 2016

Reference List (contd.)Book:Author, A. A. (1994). Title of work. Location: Publisher.Author, A. A. (1998). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxxAuthor, A. A. (2008). Title of work. doi:xxxxxxxxEditor, A. A. (Ed.). (1994). Title of work. Location: Publisher.Book chapter:Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1994). Title of chapter. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.

PracticeFormulate a correct APA reference for each of the following sourcesJody Bailey, 2016

Jody Bailey, 2016

Johnson, A. M., Jent, S., & Reynolds, L. (2007). Library instruction and information literacy 2006. Reference Services Review, 35, 584-640. doi:10.1108/00907320710838408JOURNAL ARTICLE

Jody Bailey, 2016

Gibson, C. (2008). History of information literacy. In C. N. Cox & E. B. Lindsay (Eds.), Information literacy instruction handbook (pp. 1025). Chicago, IL: Association of College and Research Libraries.CHAPTER FROM EDITED BOOK

Jody Bailey, 2016

WEBSITEGray, J. (2011). Strategic planning for diversity. Retrieved from American Library Association website: http://www.ala.org/advocacy/diversity/workplace/diversityplanning

Jody Bailey, 2016

Useful ResourcesFrom APA:The PMwell, duh!APAs 2012 Style Guide to Electronic References: http://pulse.uta.edu/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=1963538APA Style home page: http://apastyle.apa.org/APA Style Blog: http://blog.apastyle.org/APA Style FAQ: http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/index.aspxLearning APA Style: http://www.apastyle.org/learn/index.aspxFrom UTA:Our Ask A Librarian entry on APA style: http://ask.uta.edu/a.php?qid=64563Formatting Your Paper: APA Style (video tutorial):http://libraries.uta.edu/video/instruction/apaformatting/intro.htm UTAs 2-page brochure on APA style: http://www.uta.edu/library/help/files/cite-apa.pdfOther:The OWL at Purdue: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/Northern Michigan Universitys APA Guide: http://library.nmu.edu/guides/userguides/style_apa.htm