Hate, Anti-Semitism, & Propaganda in the Holocaust Overview In

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<ul><li><p>1 </p><p>Hate,Anti-Semitism,&amp;PropagandaintheHolocaustOverviewInthislesson,studentswillexplorecontroversialsymbols,thehistoricalsignificancebehindthesesymbols,andtheharmfuleffectsofsuchwhenusedtoday.StudentswillfurtherexploreeverydayactivitiesthatareimportanttothemandgainacomparativeunderstandingofhowJewswererestrictedfromthesesameactivitiesbasedonanti-SemiticlawsandregulationspassedbytheNaziparty.Studentswillexaminetheroleofanti-Semiticpropagandainschools,aswellasHitlersuseofpropagandaasameansofsettingthestageformassgenocide.Thislessonwillassiststudentsinunderstandingtherootsandramificationsofprejudice,racism,anti-Semitism,andstereotypingduringtheHolocaust.Grade7NorthCarolinaEssentialStandardsfor7thGrade 7.H.1.1-Constructcharts,graphs,andhistoricalnarrativestoexplainparticulareventsorissuesovertime. 7.H.1.2-Summarizetheliteralmeaningofhistoricaldocumentsinordertoestablishcontext. 7.H.1.3-Useprimaryandsecondarysourcestointerpretvarioushistoricalperspectives. 7.H.2.1-Analyzetheeffectsofsocial,economic,militaryandpoliticalconflictamongnations,regions,and</p><p>groups(e.g.war,genocide,imperialismandcolonization).EssentialQuestions Howdoeshistoryaffecthowweviewcertainsymbols? Whymightsomepeoplebeoffended,hurt,orfrightenedbyparticularhatesymbols? Why,throughouthistory,havepeopleoftendisliked,distrusted,orevenhatedpeoplewhoareviewedas</p><p>different? Whatareracism,stereotyping.prejudice,anti-Semitism,andintolerance?Whatroledidtheseissuesplay</p><p>intheHolocaust? Inwhatwayswasanti-SemiticpropagandausedtoostracizeJewsandothernon-Aryans? WhatwastheexperienceofJewishstudentsinGermanschoolsintheearlystagesoftheHolocaust? HowdidHitlerandtheNazisusepropagandatosetthestageforgenocideinNaziGermany? Whatexamplesofracism,stereotyping.prejudice,andanti-Semitismexisttoday?Whatcancitizensdoto</p><p>countersuchintolerance?Materials Hate,Anti-Semitism,&amp;PropagandaintheHolocaustPowerPointaccompaniment,availableinthe</p><p>DatabaseofK-12Resources(inPDFformat)o ToviewthisPDFasaprojectablepresentation,savethefile,clickViewinthetopmenubarofthe</p><p>file,andselectFullScreenModeo TorequestaneditablePPTversionofthispresentation,sendarequesttoCarolinaK12@unc.edu</p><p> Laptop/dataprojector(ifteachersareunabletoprojectimages,makephotocopiesforstudentviewing) TheLittleThingsinLife,worksheetattached TimelineofRacistPersecutionbytheNazis,attached(cutapartfordistributiontogroups) TimelineofRacistPersecutionbytheNazisResponseSheet,attached TimelineofRacistPersecutionbytheNazisNoteSheet,attached TestimonyExcerpts-SchoolsDuringtheHolocaust,attached</p></li><li><p>2 </p><p> ExploringPropaganda,6worksheetsattached Anti-SemitismToday,attachedDurationTwoclassperiodsTeacherPreparation Itisimportantthataclassdiscussingthethemespresentinthislessonhaveafoundationofrespectand</p><p>responsiblecommunication;forsuggestedactivitiesonbuildingatolerantclassroomcommunity,seetheActivitiessectionofCarolinaK-12sDatabaseofK-12ResourcesandsearchClassroomManagement/SettingExpectationsand/orCharacterEducation.</p><p> Eitheronthefloororalongawall,labelallthenumbersbetween-5to+5(with0placeddirectlyinthecenter)alongalinethatspansthelongestlengthoftheclassroom.</p><p>StudentPreparationStudentsshouldhaveabasicunderstandingoftheeventsoftheHolocaust;seeCarolinaK-12slessonIntroductiontotheHolocaustlocatedintheDatabaseofK-12Resources.ProcedureDay1</p><p>ExploringHate1. Asawarm-up,projectthefollowingquestionforstudentstosilentlyconsiderandindividuallyanswer:</p><p> Whatishate?</p><p>2. Allowstudentstofreewrite,doalistofwordassociations,sketchapicture,orexhibittheirthoughtsonthewordinwhateverwrittenmannertheychoose.</p><p>3. Afterseveralminutesofconsiderationandwriting,askafewvolunteerstosharetheirinitialthoughtswiththeclass.Then,tellstudentstheywillfurtherexploretheconceptofhatebyexaminingandrespondingtoparticularimages.</p><p>4. Directstudentattentiontothenumberspostedonthefloororalongawalloftheclassroom(seeTeacherPreparationabove).Informthestudentsthatyouaregoingtoshowthemaseriesofimages.Basedontheimage,theywillchooseaplacetostandalongthenumberlinebasedonthefeelingtheyhavetowardsthepicture.Providethesedirectionsforchoosingwheretostand: Ifyoufeeltheimagerepresentshate,and/oritarousesaverynegativeemotion,standatthe-5.You</p><p>canalsochoosetostandanywherebetween-5and0forlesserdegreesofnegativefeelings. Ifthesymbolarousesnoemotionoryoufeelitsymbolizesnothing,standatthe0. Iftheimagedoesnotrepresenthateand/orarousesaverypositiveemotion,standatthe+5.Youcan</p><p>alsostandinbetween0and+5toshowvaryingdegreesofpositivefeelings.5. Projectvisualssuchasthoseonslides2-14oftheaccompanyingPowerPoint(availableintheCarolinaK-</p><p>12sDatabaseofK-12Resourcesorbye-mailingarequesttoCarolinaK12@unc.edu.)SymbolsinthePowerPointarelistedbelow.Aftereachpicture,allowstudentstosharetheirreasoningforchoosingwheretostandalongthenumberline. Flag BurningFlag Cross Burningcross Knot Noose</p></li><li><p>3 </p><p> Yin-yang Swastika StarofDavid StarofDaveJude Pinktriangle Prisonertrianglechart</p><p>6. Afterthestudentshavetakentheirseats,debrieftheactivitywiththefollowingquestions: Whydidsomesymbolsarousepositivefeelingsbutothersymbolsarousednegativefeelings? Whichsymbolcausedthestrongestnegativeresponseforyouandwhy? Inyouropinion,whichoftheseshouldbeclassifiedashatesymbolsandwhy? Inwhatwaysdotheitemsintheseimageshavemultiplemeanings? Howmuchdoeshistoryaffecthowweviewsomeofthesesymbols?Whatsignificancedosomeof</p><p>theseimageshavehistoricallyaswellasinourcurrentsociety? Whichimagesmightsomepeoplebeoffended,hurt,orfrightenedbyandwhy?</p><p>7. Againdisplaythefollowingsymbolsanddiscusssomeoftheirhistoricalsignificance:</p><p> Burningcross:ThissymbolismostcloselyassociatedwiththeKuKluxKlan(KKK),agroupadvocatingforwhitesupremacy.TheKKK,firstformedbyConfederateveteransoftheCivilWarin1866,oftenusedterrorism,violence,andintimidationmeasuressuchascrossburningandlynchingtooppressAfricanAmericansandothergroupstheyfeltweredifferentorinferior.</p><p> Noose:Fromthe1880stothe1960s,atleast4,700menandwomenwerelynchedinthiscountry.Lynchingistheprocessofhumiliating,torturing,andkillingpeoplebymobsactingoutsidethelaw.Thesemurders,mostofthemunpunished,oftentooktheformofhangingandburning.Thenooserepresentsthisprocessandremainsaterrifyingsymbol.ItcontinuestobeusedbyraciststointimidateAfricanAmericans,whomadeupmorethan70percentoflynchingvictims.(Source:NYTimes)</p><p> Swastika:TheswastikabecamethesymbolofHitlersNaziPartyduringWWII,whenapproximatelysixmillionEuropeanJews(andotherswhowereconsidereddifferent)werepersecuted,tortured,andkilled.ThisperiodoftimeandmurderisknownastheHolocaust.</p><p> StarofDavid:WhiletheStarofDavidisareligioussymbolcherishedbypeopleoftheJewishfaith,JewswereforcedtowearaclothpatchintheshapeoftheStarofDavidwithJudenwrittenonit.Thiswasintendedtobeabadgeofshameassociatedwithanti-Semitism.</p><p> Triangles:UpsidedowntrianglesofvariouscolorswereusedinNaziconcentrationcamps.Thebadges,sewntotheuniformofprisoners,wereusedtoidentifythereasontheprisonershadbeenplacedthere.Thesemandatorybadgesofshamehadspecificmeaningsindicatedbytheircolorandshape.Thepinktrianglesymbolizedinnocentpersonsimprisonedforbeinghomosexual.</p><p>ThemesoftheHolocaust</p><p>8. Instructstudentstospecificallyconsidereachofthe5symbolsdiscussedabove.Displayslide15ofthePowerPointandaskifanyonecanidentifywhattheyallhaveincommon.Allowstudentstosharetheirthoughtsthenfocusstudentsonthefactthateachofthesesymbolswasusedtointimidate,label,restricttherightsof,orharm(emotionallyand/orphysically)innocentpeopleinvarioussocietieswhowereviewedasdifferentorothers.FocusstudentsonthefactthatitwastheNazisintolerancetowardsothers,ornon-Aryans,thatleadtothekillingofmillionsofhumanbeingsduringtheHolocaust.Discuss: Whydopeopledislike,distrust,orevenhatepeoplewhoareviewedasdifferent?Wheredoes</p><p>hatredofpeoplewhoaredifferentthanuscomefrom? Whatisyourdefinitionorunderstandingofthefollowingwords:</p><p>o Racismo Stereotype</p></li><li><p>4 </p><p>o Prejudiceo Anti-Semitismo Intoleranceo Propaganda</p><p>9. Afterstudentshavediscussedtheirownunderstandingofthesewords,compileaclassdefinitionandhave</p><p>studentswritethedefinitionsdown,suchas: Racism:hatredofonepersonbyanother--orthebeliefthatanotherpersonislessthanhuman--</p><p>becauseofskincolor,language,customs,placeofbirth,oranyfactorthatsupposedlyrevealsthebasicnatureofthatperson.(Source:Anti-DefamationLeague,http://www.adl.org/hate-patrol/racism.asp)</p><p> Stereotype:abelieforassumption,oftennegative,aboutindividualcharacteristicsgeneralizedtoallpeoplewithinaparticulargroup</p><p> Prejudice:prejudgment;forminganopinionormakingajudgmentaboutapersonbasedontheirrace,religion,class,etc.</p><p> Anti-Semitism:ThebelieforbehaviorhostiletowardJewsjustbecausetheyareJewish.ItmaytaketheformofreligiousteachingsthatproclaimtheinferiorityofJews,forinstance,orpoliticaleffortstoisolate,oppress,orotherwiseinjurethem.ItmayalsoincludeprejudicedorstereotypedviewsaboutJews.(Source:Anti-DefamationLeague,http://www.adl.org/hate-patrol/antisemitism.asp)</p><p> Intolerance:unwillingnessorrefusaltotolerateorrespectcontraryopinionsorbeliefs,personsofdifferentraces,backgrounds,orcultures,etc.</p><p> Propaganda:atypeofmessageaimedatinfluencingopinionsand/orthebehaviorofpeople.Propagandamayprovideonlypartialinformationorbedeliberatelymisleading.Propagandatechniquesareoftenfoundontelevisionandradio,aswellasmagazinesandnewspapers</p><p>TheLittleThingsinLife</p><p>10. Tellstudentstheywillreturntothesedefinitions,butthatyoufirstwantthemtoconsidertheirlivesandthethingstheyvaluehavingtherighttodo.Passouttheattachedworksheet,TheLittleThingsinLifeinwhichstudentsrankparticularactionsonascaleof1-5,basedontheimportanceoftheactiontothemortheirlevelofenjoymentdoingsuchanaction.Goovertheinstructionswithstudentsthengivethemapproximately5minutestocompletetheirrankings.Whenfinished,allowafewstudentvolunteerstosharewhichactionstheyfeltweremostimportantorenjoyabletothem.Then,tellstudentsthatbetweentheyearsof1933-1943,everysingleoneoftheseactionsbecameillegalforJewsandothernon-AryansinEurope.Fromshoppinginstorestosittingonaparkbenchtoowningapuppy,theNazisensuredtheJewshadfewerrightsandfeltlessandlesshuman.Tellstudentsthatwhileitmightbeimpossibletoimagine,itactuallyhappened.</p><p>11. TellstudentstheyaregoingtofurtherexplorethevariousactionsofHitlerandtheNazis.Dividestudents</p><p>into6groupsandprovideeachgroupwithcopiesofoneofthe6timelinesegments(attached.)AlsoprovideeachstudentwithacopyoftheTimelineofRacistPersecutionbytheNazisResponseSheet&amp;NoteSheet(attached).Givestudentsapproximately10minutestoreadtheirsectionofthetimelineanddiscussthequestionsposedontheResponseSheet.Explaintostudentsthattheywillbeteachingtheremainderoftheclassaboutwhatoccurredduringtheiryear(s),soitisimportantforthemtoreadandanswerthequestionsthoroughly.Tellgroupstoselect1-2spokespeoplewhowillreportthegroupsworktotheremainderofclass.Eachgroupshouldalsobepreparedtoansweranyfollow-upquestionsfellowclassmatesmayhave.</p><p>12. Oncestudentsarereadytopresent,tellstudentstolistencarefullyandfillintheirNoteSheetbasedonwhattheyhearregardingtheotheryearstheydidnotreadabout.Allowstudentstoaskquestionsthroughoutthepresentations.</p></li><li><p>5 </p><p>Note:Asstudentsworkandduringthetimestudentsreportbacktotherestofclass,teachersmayneedtofurtherexplainorprovidebackgroundonthewordsthatareinboldonthetimeline.Onceallgroupshavepresentedontheirsectionofthetimeline,discuss:</p><p> Lookatyourworksheetinwhichyourankedtheimportanceofparticularactivitiestoyou.Aswehavejustlearned,JewswererestrictedovertheyearsduringtheHolocaustfromeverysingleoneoftheseactivities.Whatdoyouimaginethatwouldbelike?</p><p> Ofeverythingyoulearnedtoday,whatwasmostshockingortroublesometoyouandwhy?Whichrestrictiondoyouthinkwouldhavebeenthehardesttodealwithandwhy?</p><p> WhatdoyouthinkittookforJewsandothernon-Aryanstoperseverethroughoutthisunjusttreatment?</p><p>13. Inclosing,pointouttostudentsthatwhethertheyrealizeitornot,atsomepointineachofourlives,ifnotalready,wewillconfrontprejudiceordiscrimination,beitbasedonourrace,ourculture,ourreligiousbeliefs,ourage,oursexualorientation,etc.Andontheflipside,mostpeople(sometimesknowingly,sometimesunconsciously)holdanger,hatred,ornegativefeelingstowardspeoplewhotheyfeelaredifferentthanthemselves.Ifwedontthenexaminethesepiecesofourselves,reflectonourroleintheworld,andrespectfullyandhonestlydiscusswithoneanother,evenifitmakesusuncomfortable,wearedoomedtorepeatthemistakesofhistory.</p><p>14. Giventhis,askstudentstothinkbacktothesymbolstheyexaminedearlierinclassandtodiscuss(eitherasaclassorinawrittenreflection)whysymbolssuchasthesearedangerouswhenusedtoday.ExplaintostudentsthattheAnti-DefamationLeaguearguesthathatesymbolsaremorethanmeresigns:Thesesymbolsaremeanttoinspireasenseoffearandinsecurity.[They]givehatersasenseofpowerandbelonging,andaquickwayofidentifyingwithotherswhosharetheirideology.</p><p>Day2</p><p>Anti-SemitisminSchools15. Asawarm-up,projectslide16forstudentexamination,acartoonwiththecaptionTheJewishNoseis</p><p>WideattheEndandLooksliketheNumberSix(teachersshouldwithholdsharingthecartoonscaptioninitially).Allowstudentstoexaminetheimageandrespondwiththeirinitialthoughtsinwriting,thendiscussasaclass: Whatareyourinitialthoughtsregardingthispicture?Whatspecificpartoftheimagestruckyoufirst? Yesterday,wediscussedthedefinitionofstereotypesandanti-Semitism(haveastudentvolunteer</p><p>refreshtheclasssmemoryofthedefinitions.)Doyouseeanystereotypicaloranti-Semiticmessagesinthispicture?Explain.Howwouldyoudescribethecaricatureshighlightedontheblackboardinthepicture?</p><p> Ifyouweretogivethisdrawingatitle,whatwoulditbe?o Atthispoint,sharethecaptiontranslationwithstudentsforthepicture:TheJewishNoseis</p><p>WideattheEndandLooksliketheNumberSix. Nowthatyouknowthecaptionoftheimage,doesyourimpressionofitchange?Explain. Whatdoyouthinkthisimagewasusedfor?Whatisitspurposeandwhodoyouthinkwasitsintended</p><p>audience?16. ExplaintostudentsthatmuchofAdolfHitlersstrategytoostracizeJewsreliedonanti-Semitic</p><p>propaganda,particularlypropagandaintheeducationalsystem.JustashebecameChancellorofGermanyin1933,manyJewishpupilsinpublicschoolbeganfeelingostracizedfromtheirpeersandteachers.Almostovernight,JewishstudentsinNaziGermanyhadbecomesocialoutcasts.</p><p>NosingletargetofnazificationtookhigherprioritythanGermany'syoung.By1937,97%ofallteachersbelongedtotheNationalSocialistTeachers'Union.Everymemberofthisunionhadtosubmitanancestry</p></li><li><p>6 </p><p>tableintriplicatewithofficialdocumentsofproof.CoursesandtextbooksinNazischoolsreflectedtheaimsofHitler.Ofthetopicsthatteacherswererequiredtoteach,themostimportantwasracialtheoryand,byextension,theJewishproblem.(Source:http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/people/m/mills-mary/mills-00.html) Projectslide17andsolicitstudentinterpretation:</p><p>o Whatdoyouseehere?(havestudentsfirstpointoutthefeaturesthattheynotice)o Whatdoyouthinkwasoccurringthemomentthepicturewastaken?Whatevidencemakes</p><p>youthinkthis? Explaintostudentsthatthisa1943picturefromaschoolforGermanGirlsinwhich</p><p>studentsarebeingtaughtaboutthesuperior(Aryan)andinferior(non-Aryan)races.Studentswereconstantlybarragedwithteachingssuchasthis-fromteacherspointingoutphysicaldifferencesasseeninthisimage,tolearningskewedhistoricalinformationthatinsinuatedJewswereresponsibleforthedestructionofcertaincivilizations,andthatifleftwiththeirfreedomtheywoulddestroyGermany.(Formoreinformation,seehttp://www.nizkor.org/hweb/people/m/mills-mary/mills-00.html)</p><p> Projectslide18andhavestudentsrea...</p></li></ul>