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    Hate,Anti-Semitism,&PropagandaintheHolocaustOverviewInthislesson,studentswillexplorecontroversialsymbols,thehistoricalsignificancebehindthesesymbols,andtheharmfuleffectsofsuchwhenusedtoday.StudentswillfurtherexploreeverydayactivitiesthatareimportanttothemandgainacomparativeunderstandingofhowJewswererestrictedfromthesesameactivitiesbasedonanti-SemiticlawsandregulationspassedbytheNaziparty.Studentswillexaminetheroleofanti-Semiticpropagandainschools,aswellasHitlersuseofpropagandaasameansofsettingthestageformassgenocide.Thislessonwillassiststudentsinunderstandingtherootsandramificationsofprejudice,racism,anti-Semitism,andstereotypingduringtheHolocaust.Grade7NorthCarolinaEssentialStandardsfor7thGrade 7.H.1.1-Constructcharts,graphs,andhistoricalnarrativestoexplainparticulareventsorissuesovertime. 7.H.1.2-Summarizetheliteralmeaningofhistoricaldocumentsinordertoestablishcontext. 7.H.1.3-Useprimaryandsecondarysourcestointerpretvarioushistoricalperspectives. 7.H.2.1-Analyzetheeffectsofsocial,economic,militaryandpoliticalconflictamongnations,regions,and

    groups(e.g.war,genocide,imperialismandcolonization).EssentialQuestions Howdoeshistoryaffecthowweviewcertainsymbols? Whymightsomepeoplebeoffended,hurt,orfrightenedbyparticularhatesymbols? Why,throughouthistory,havepeopleoftendisliked,distrusted,orevenhatedpeoplewhoareviewedas

    different? Whatareracism,stereotyping.prejudice,anti-Semitism,andintolerance?Whatroledidtheseissuesplay

    intheHolocaust? Inwhatwayswasanti-SemiticpropagandausedtoostracizeJewsandothernon-Aryans? WhatwastheexperienceofJewishstudentsinGermanschoolsintheearlystagesoftheHolocaust? HowdidHitlerandtheNazisusepropagandatosetthestageforgenocideinNaziGermany? Whatexamplesofracism,stereotyping.prejudice,andanti-Semitismexisttoday?Whatcancitizensdoto

    countersuchintolerance?Materials Hate,Anti-Semitism,&PropagandaintheHolocaustPowerPointaccompaniment,availableinthe

    DatabaseofK-12Resources(inPDFformat)o ToviewthisPDFasaprojectablepresentation,savethefile,clickViewinthetopmenubarofthe

    file,andselectFullScreenModeo TorequestaneditablePPTversionofthispresentation,sendarequesttoCarolinaK12@unc.edu

    Laptop/dataprojector(ifteachersareunabletoprojectimages,makephotocopiesforstudentviewing) TheLittleThingsinLife,worksheetattached TimelineofRacistPersecutionbytheNazis,attached(cutapartfordistributiontogroups) TimelineofRacistPersecutionbytheNazisResponseSheet,attached TimelineofRacistPersecutionbytheNazisNoteSheet,attached TestimonyExcerpts-SchoolsDuringtheHolocaust,attached

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    ExploringPropaganda,6worksheetsattached Anti-SemitismToday,attachedDurationTwoclassperiodsTeacherPreparation Itisimportantthataclassdiscussingthethemespresentinthislessonhaveafoundationofrespectand

    responsiblecommunication;forsuggestedactivitiesonbuildingatolerantclassroomcommunity,seetheActivitiessectionofCarolinaK-12sDatabaseofK-12ResourcesandsearchClassroomManagement/SettingExpectationsand/orCharacterEducation.

    Eitheronthefloororalongawall,labelallthenumbersbetween-5to+5(with0placeddirectlyinthecenter)alongalinethatspansthelongestlengthoftheclassroom.

    StudentPreparationStudentsshouldhaveabasicunderstandingoftheeventsoftheHolocaust;seeCarolinaK-12slessonIntroductiontotheHolocaustlocatedintheDatabaseofK-12Resources.ProcedureDay1

    ExploringHate1. Asawarm-up,projectthefollowingquestionforstudentstosilentlyconsiderandindividuallyanswer:

    Whatishate?

    2. Allowstudentstofreewrite,doalistofwordassociations,sketchapicture,orexhibittheirthoughtsonthewordinwhateverwrittenmannertheychoose.

    3. Afterseveralminutesofconsiderationandwriting,askafewvolunteerstosharetheirinitialthoughtswiththeclass.Then,tellstudentstheywillfurtherexploretheconceptofhatebyexaminingandrespondingtoparticularimages.

    4. Directstudentattentiontothenumberspostedonthefloororalongawalloftheclassroom(seeTeacherPreparationabove).Informthestudentsthatyouaregoingtoshowthemaseriesofimages.Basedontheimage,theywillchooseaplacetostandalongthenumberlinebasedonthefeelingtheyhavetowardsthepicture.Providethesedirectionsforchoosingwheretostand: Ifyoufeeltheimagerepresentshate,and/oritarousesaverynegativeemotion,standatthe-5.You

    canalsochoosetostandanywherebetween-5and0forlesserdegreesofnegativefeelings. Ifthesymbolarousesnoemotionoryoufeelitsymbolizesnothing,standatthe0. Iftheimagedoesnotrepresenthateand/orarousesaverypositiveemotion,standatthe+5.Youcan

    alsostandinbetween0and+5toshowvaryingdegreesofpositivefeelings.5. Projectvisualssuchasthoseonslides2-14oftheaccompanyingPowerPoint(availableintheCarolinaK-

    12sDatabaseofK-12Resourcesorbye-mailingarequesttoCarolinaK12@unc.edu.)SymbolsinthePowerPointarelistedbelow.Aftereachpicture,allowstudentstosharetheirreasoningforchoosingwheretostandalongthenumberline. Flag BurningFlag Cross Burningcross Knot Noose

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    Yin-yang Swastika StarofDavid StarofDaveJude Pinktriangle Prisonertrianglechart

    6. Afterthestudentshavetakentheirseats,debrieftheactivitywiththefollowingquestions: Whydidsomesymbolsarousepositivefeelingsbutothersymbolsarousednegativefeelings? Whichsymbolcausedthestrongestnegativeresponseforyouandwhy? Inyouropinion,whichoftheseshouldbeclassifiedashatesymbolsandwhy? Inwhatwaysdotheitemsintheseimageshavemultiplemeanings? Howmuchdoeshistoryaffecthowweviewsomeofthesesymbols?Whatsignificancedosomeof

    theseimageshavehistoricallyaswellasinourcurrentsociety? Whichimagesmightsomepeoplebeoffended,hurt,orfrightenedbyandwhy?

    7. Againdisplaythefollowingsymbolsanddiscusssomeoftheirhistoricalsignificance:

    Burningcross:ThissymbolismostcloselyassociatedwiththeKuKluxKlan(KKK),agroupadvocatingforwhitesupremacy.TheKKK,firstformedbyConfederateveteransoftheCivilWarin1866,oftenusedterrorism,violence,andintimidationmeasuressuchascrossburningandlynchingtooppressAfricanAmericansandothergroupstheyfeltweredifferentorinferior.

    Noose:Fromthe1880stothe1960s,atleast4,700menandwomenwerelynchedinthiscountry.Lynchingistheprocessofhumiliating,torturing,andkillingpeoplebymobsactingoutsidethelaw.Thesemurders,mostofthemunpunished,oftentooktheformofhangingandburning.Thenooserepresentsthisprocessandremainsaterrifyingsymbol.ItcontinuestobeusedbyraciststointimidateAfricanAmericans,whomadeupmorethan70percentoflynchingvictims.(Source:NYTimes)

    Swastika:TheswastikabecamethesymbolofHitlersNaziPartyduringWWII,whenapproximatelysixmillionEuropeanJews(andotherswhowereconsidereddifferent)werepersecuted,tortured,andkilled.ThisperiodoftimeandmurderisknownastheHolocaust.

    StarofDavid:WhiletheStarofDavidisareligioussymbolcherishedbypeopleoftheJewishfaith,JewswereforcedtowearaclothpatchintheshapeoftheStarofDavidwithJudenwrittenonit.Thiswasintendedtobeabadgeofshameassociatedwithanti-Semitism.

    Triangles:UpsidedowntrianglesofvariouscolorswereusedinNaziconcentrationcamps.Thebadges,sewntotheuniformofprisoners,wereusedtoidentifythereasontheprisonershadbeenplacedthere.Thesemandatorybadgesofshamehadspecificmeaningsindicatedbytheircolorandshape.Thepinktrianglesymbolizedinnocentpersonsimprisonedforbeinghomosexual.

    ThemesoftheHolocaust

    8. Instructstudentstospecificallyconsidereachofthe5symbolsdiscussedabove.Displayslide15ofthePowerPointandaskifanyonecanidentifywhattheyallhaveincommon.Allowstudentstosharetheirthoughtsthenfocusstudentsonthefactthateachofthesesymbolswasusedtointimidate,label,restricttherightsof,orharm(emotionallyand/orphysically)innocentpeopleinvarioussocietieswhowereviewedasdifferentorothers.FocusstudentsonthefactthatitwastheNazisintolerancetowardsothers,ornon-Aryans,thatleadtothekillingofmillionsofhumanbeingsduringtheHolocaust.Discuss: Whydopeopledislike,distrust,orevenhatepeoplewhoareviewedasdifferent?Wheredoes

    hatredofpeoplewhoaredifferentthanuscomefrom? Whatisyourdefinitionorunderstandingofthefollowingwords:

    o Racismo Stereotype

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    o Prejudiceo Anti-Semitismo Intoleranceo Propaganda

    9. Afterstudentshavediscussedtheirownunderstandingofthesewords,compileaclassdefinitionandhave

    studentswritethedefinitionsdown,suchas: Racism:hatredofonepersonbyanother--orthebeliefthatanotherpersonislessthanhuman--

    becauseofskincolor,language,customs,placeofbirth,oranyfactorthatsupposedlyrevealsthebasicnatureofthatperson.(Source:Anti-DefamationLeague,http://www.adl.org/hate-patrol/racism.asp)

    Stereotype:abelieforassumption,oftennegative,aboutindividualcharacteristicsgeneralizedtoallpeoplewithinaparticulargroup

    Prejudice:prejudgment;forminganopinionormakingajudgmentaboutapersonbasedontheirrace,religion,class,etc.

    Anti-Semitism:ThebelieforbehaviorhostiletowardJewsjustbecausetheyareJewish.ItmaytaketheformofreligiousteachingsthatproclaimtheinferiorityofJews,forinstance,orpoliticaleffortstoisolate,oppress,orotherwiseinjurethem.ItmayalsoincludeprejudicedorstereotypedviewsaboutJews.(Source:Anti-DefamationLeague,http://www.adl.org/hate-patrol/antisemitism.asp)

    Intolerance:unwillingnessorrefusaltotolerateorrespectcontraryopinionsorbeliefs,personsofdifferentraces,backgrounds,orcultures,etc.

    Propaganda:atypeofmessageaimedatinfluencingopinionsand/orthebehaviorofpeople.Propagandamayprovideonlypartialinformationorbedeliberatelymisleading.Propagandatechniquesareoftenfoundontelevisionandradio,aswellasmagazinesandnewspapers

    TheLittleThingsinLife

    10. Tellstudentstheywillreturntothesedefinitions,butthatyoufirstwantthemtoconsidertheirlivesandthethingstheyvaluehavingtherighttodo.Passouttheattachedworksheet,TheLittleThingsinLifeinwhichstudentsrankparticularactionsonascaleof1-5,basedontheimportanceoftheactiontothemortheirlevelofenjoymentdoingsuchanaction.Goovertheinstructionswithstudentsthengivethemapproximately5minutestocompletetheirrankings.Whenfinished,allowafewstudentvolunteerstosharewhichactionstheyfeltweremostimportantorenjoyabletothem.Then,tellstudentsthatbetweentheyearsof1933-1943,everysingleoneoftheseactionsbecameillegalforJewsandothernon-AryansinEurope.Fromshoppinginstorestosittingonaparkbenchtoowningapuppy,theNazisensuredtheJewshadfewerrightsandfeltlessandlesshuman.Tellstudentsthatwhileitmightbeimpossibletoimagine,itactuallyhappened.

    11. TellstudentstheyaregoingtofurtherexplorethevariousactionsofHitlerandtheNazis.Dividestudents

    into6groupsandprovideeachgroupwithcopiesofoneofthe6timelinesegments(attached.)AlsoprovideeachstudentwithacopyoftheTimelineofRacistPersecutionbytheNazisResponseSheet&NoteSheet(attached).Givestudentsapproximately10minutestoreadtheirsectionofthetimelineanddiscussthequestionsposedontheResponseSheet.Explaintostudentsthattheywillbeteachingtheremainderoftheclassaboutwhatoccurredduringtheiryear(s),soitisimportantforthemtoreadandanswerthequestionsthoroughly.Tellgroupstoselect1-2spokespeoplewhowillreportthegroupsworktotheremainderofclass.Eachgroupshouldalsobepreparedtoansweranyfollow-upquestionsfellowclassmatesmayhave.

    12. Oncestudentsarereadytopresent,tellstudentstolistencarefullyandfillintheirNoteSheetbasedonwhattheyhearregardingtheotheryearstheydidnotreadabout.Allowstudentstoaskquestionsthroughoutthepresentations.

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    Note:Asstudentsworkandduringthetimestudentsreportbacktotherestofclass,teachersmayneedtofurtherexplainorprovidebackgroundonthewordsthatareinboldonthetimeline.Onceallgroupshavepresentedontheirsectionofthetimeline,discuss:

    Lookatyourworksheetinwhichyourankedtheimportanceofparticularactivitiestoyou.Aswehavejustlearned,JewswererestrictedovertheyearsduringtheHolocaustfromeverysingleoneoftheseactivities.Whatdoyouimaginethatwouldbelike?

    Ofeverythingyoulearnedtoday,whatwasmostshockingortroublesometoyouandwhy?Whichrestrictiondoyouthinkwouldhavebeenthehardesttodealwithandwhy?

    WhatdoyouthinkittookforJewsandothernon-Aryanstoperseverethroughoutthisunjusttreatment?

    13. Inclosing,pointouttostudentsthatwhethertheyrealizeitornot,atsomepointineachofourlives,ifnotalready,wewillconfrontprejudiceordiscrimination,beitbasedonourrace,ourculture,ourreligiousbeliefs,ourage,oursexualorientation,etc.Andontheflipside,mostpeople(sometimesknowingly,sometimesunconsciously)holdanger,hatred,ornegativefeelingstowardspeoplewhotheyfeelaredifferentthanthemselves.Ifwedontthenexaminethesepiecesofourselves,reflectonourroleintheworld,andrespectfullyandhonestlydiscusswithoneanother,evenifitmakesusuncomfortable,wearedoomedtorepeatthemistakesofhistory.

    14. Giventhis,askstudentstothinkbacktothesymbolstheyexaminedearlierinclassandtodiscuss(eitherasaclassorinawrittenreflection)whysymbolssuchasthesearedangerouswhenusedtoday.ExplaintostudentsthattheAnti-DefamationLeaguearguesthathatesymbolsaremorethanmeresigns:Thesesymbolsaremeanttoinspireasenseoffearandinsecurity.[They]givehatersasenseofpowerandbelonging,andaquickwayofidentifyingwithotherswhosharetheirideology.

    Day2

    Anti-SemitisminSchools15. Asawarm-up,projectslide16forstudentexamination,acartoonwiththecaptionTheJewishNoseis

    WideattheEndandLooksliketheNumberSix(teachersshouldwithholdsharingthecartoonscaptioninitially).Allowstudentstoexaminetheimageandrespondwiththeirinitialthoughtsinwriting,thendiscussasaclass: Whatareyourinitialthoughtsregardingthispicture?Whatspecificpartoftheimagestruckyoufirst? Yesterday,wediscussedthedefinitionofstereotypesandanti-Semitism(haveastudentvolunteer

    refreshtheclasssmemoryofthedefinitions.)Doyouseeanystereotypicaloranti-Semiticmessagesinthispicture?Explain.Howwouldyoudescribethecaricatureshighlightedontheblackboardinthepicture?

    Ifyouweretogivethisdrawingatitle,whatwoulditbe?o Atthispoint,sharethecaptiontranslationwithstudentsforthepicture:TheJewishNoseis

    WideattheEndandLooksliketheNumberSix. Nowthatyouknowthecaptionoftheimage,doesyourimpressionofitchange?Explain. Whatdoyouthinkthisimagewasusedfor?Whatisitspurposeandwhodoyouthinkwasitsintended

    audience?16. ExplaintostudentsthatmuchofAdolfHitlersstrategytoostracizeJewsreliedonanti-Semitic

    propaganda,particularlypropagandaintheeducationalsystem.JustashebecameChancellorofGermanyin1933,manyJewishpupilsinpublicschoolbeganfeelingostracizedfromtheirpeersandteachers.Almostovernight,JewishstudentsinNaziGermanyhadbecomesocialoutcasts.

    NosingletargetofnazificationtookhigherprioritythanGermany'syoung.By1937,97%ofallteachersbelongedtotheNationalSocialistTeachers'Union.Everymemberofthisunionhadtosubmitanancestry

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    tableintriplicatewithofficialdocumentsofproof.CoursesandtextbooksinNazischoolsreflectedtheaimsofHitler.Ofthetopicsthatteacherswererequiredtoteach,themostimportantwasracialtheoryand,byextension,theJewishproblem.(Source:http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/people/m/mills-mary/mills-00.html) Projectslide17andsolicitstudentinterpretation:

    o Whatdoyouseehere?(havestudentsfirstpointoutthefeaturesthattheynotice)o Whatdoyouthinkwasoccurringthemomentthepicturewastaken?Whatevidencemakes

    youthinkthis? Explaintostudentsthatthisa1943picturefromaschoolforGermanGirlsinwhich

    studentsarebeingtaughtaboutthesuperior(Aryan)andinferior(non-Aryan)races.Studentswereconstantlybarragedwithteachingssuchasthis-fromteacherspointingoutphysicaldifferencesasseeninthisimage,tolearningskewedhistoricalinformationthatinsinuatedJewswereresponsibleforthedestructionofcertaincivilizations,andthatifleftwiththeirfreedomtheywoulddestroyGermany.(Formoreinformation,seehttp://www.nizkor.org/hweb/people/m/mills-mary/mills-00.html)

    Projectslide18andhavestudentsreadthesampleMathproblemanddiscuss:o Wouldyouclassifythemathproblemasanti-Semitic?Why?o Whyisthistypeofanti-Semitism,evenwheninsomethingassimpleasamathproblem,

    dangerous?o Ifyouaretaughtinschool,dayafterday,thatacertaingroupislessthanorsub-human

    andthatyouarebetterthanthem,orifyouaretaughtthatanothergroupofpeopleistherootofalltheproblemsinyourcommunity,howmighttheseongoingstereotypesaffectstudentsofdifferentages?

    o IfyouareJewish,andyouarecontinuallyhearingfromyourteachersandfellowstudentsthatyouarelessthananddifferent,howmightthisaffectyou?

    17. Tellstudentsthatashurtfulasbeingvictimsofracistandanti-Semiticeducationintheirschoolswas,the

    situationinGermaneducationworsenedwhenonNovember15,1938,JewishchildrenwereofficiallybannedfromGermanschools.Thislaw,promulgatedafterKristallnacht(theNightofBrokenGlass)expelledJewishpupilsfromthegeneraleducationsystem,evenwherespecialclassesforJewsexisted.Evenbeforetheofficialban,manychildrenhadswitchedfrompublicschoolstoJewishschoolsbecauseoftheanti-Semiticclimateandharassmentonthepartofnon-Jewishteachersandstudents.(Source:http://www1.yadvashem.org/education/lessonplan/english/antisemitism/antisemitism.htm)

    18. CutaparttheattachedTestimonyExcerpts-SchoolsDuringtheHolocaustandaskfourstudent

    volunteerstoreadthewordsaloud.Discuss: Whichpersonswordsstruckyouthemostandwhy? HowwouldyoudescribethefeelingsofRosemarieandMosheasstudentsinpublicschoolsunderNazi

    rule? CompareandcontrasttheactionsofMoshesteacherwiththoseofRosemariesprincipal.Doyou

    thinkthatRosemariesprincipalwasanti-Semitic?Whyorwhynot?Intheend,bothRosemarieandMoshehadtoleaveschool.Thewayinwhichbotheducatorsrelatedtotheirstudentswasdifferent,yettheendresultwasthesame.Shouldweplacebotheducatorsinthesamecategory?Explain.o PointouttostudentsthatitishardtoimaginewhatiswasliketoexperiencewhatRosemarieand

    Moshewentthrough.Manyofustakeschoolforgrantedtodaybecauseweveallalwayshadtherighttobehere.Somestudentsmayevenjokethatnothavingtoattendschoolwouldbepreferable.Butintruth,wecantimaginewhatthistypeofinjusticetobehumiliatedthenbannedfromschoolbecauseofyourrace,religion,orculturewouldtrulyfeellike.

    ConsiderNachmanswordsasateacher.Whatwereteachersriskingbyholdingsecretclasses?Whatwerestudentsriskingbyattending?Whydoyouthinktheyallchosetoattendsecretclasses,regardlessoftherisks?

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    ReconsiderNeeseswords.Whatstrikesyouaboutthisseeminglysimplecomment?19. Explaintostudentsthatfromeveryangle,youngpeoplewerebeingtaughttohatefellowhumanbeings

    forbeingdifferent.Eventheyoungestofchildrenweresaturatedwiththesameanti-Semiticpropaganda.Projectslide19anddiscuss: Whatdoyouseehere? Whatdoyouthinkthismightbeandwhy?Whatisthemessagebeingconveyed?Whodoyouthink

    thetargetedaudienceis? Doesanythingthatyouseestrikeyouasstereotypicaloranti-Semitic?Explain.

    o ExplaintostudentsthattheimageoftheJewassomethinglessthanhuman,unnaturaland/orimmoralwasoftenfoundinpicturestorybooksforyoungchildren.Tellstudentsthattheimagetheyareexaminingisanexampleofsuchabook,calledaprimer,anditstitlereads:DontTrustaFoxinaGreenMeadowortheWordofaJew.

    ExploringPropaganda

    20. TellstudentsthattheyaregoingtofurtherexploreexamplesofGermanpropaganda.Teachersshouldchooseoneofthefollowingoptionsforleadingthisactivity: GroupCarousel:o Print6examplesofpropagandaimages(ifpossibleincolor)andposteachatthetopofapieceof

    chartpaper(examplescanbefoundontheattachedExploringPropagandaworksheetsoronslides21-26oftheaccompanyingPowerPointforthislesson.Foradditionalexamplesgotohttp://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/ww2era.htm.)Undereachimage,writethefollowingquestions(thesequestionscanalsobeprojectedusingslide20ofthePowerPoint):

    Whatmessagedoesthisimagesend? Whodoyouthinktheintendedaudiencewas? Whatdoyouthinkitspurposewas? Whatstereotypesoranti-Semiticmessagesdoyouidentifyinthisimage?

    o Hangthechartpaperwiththepropagandaimagesatthetoparoundtheclassroom.Dividestudentsinto6equalgroups(orasmanygroupsastherearepropagandaimagestoexamine)andplaceeachgroupatoneparticularpieceofchartpaper.Provideeachgroupwithadifferentcoloredmarker.Instructeachgrouptospend3minutes(teacherscanchoosethetimeframetheyfeelisappropriatefortheirlevelofstudents)examininganddiscussingtheimage,thenanswerthequestionsposedunderneaththeimage.After3minutes,useabellorflickthelightswitchtosignalstudentstorotateclockwisetothenextpieceofchartpaper.Studentsshouldrepeattheprocess,firstexaminingthenewimageanddiscussingtheirthoughts,thenreviewingthewrittenthoughtsofthepreviousgroupregardingtheimage.Thecurrentgroupcanthenaddanynewthoughtstotheimage,placeacheckmarkbyparticularcommentstheystronglyagreewith,ornotecounterargumentstopreviouscomments.

    SeatedPartnerorGroupWork:o MakecopiesoftheattachedExploringPropagandaworksheetsanddistributethemtostudentsto

    examineandcompleteinpartnersorgroupsof3-4.Afterstudentshavehadtimetoreviewtheirimage,teacherscanhavedifferentpartners/groupstradepaperswithalternatepartners/groupsandrepeattheprocess,similartotheaboveprocessinGroupCarousel.Teacherscanalsochoosetoprojectthepropagandaimages(foundonslides21-26)andhaveeachgroupreporttheirthoughtstotheclassregardingtheirimage.

    21. Afterstudentshavereviewedtheimages,discuss:

    Wehavelearnedthatpropaganda,anti-Semitism,stereotypes,etc.werefoundinjustabouteveryareaoflifeduringtheHolocaust.SummarizehowyouthinkthisaffectedGermans.SummarizehowyouthinkthisaffectedJewsandothernon-Aryans.

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    Hitlersaid:"Propagandaattemptstoforceadoctrineonthewholepeople...Propagandaworksonthegeneralpublicfromthestandpointofanideaandmakesthemripeforthevictoryofthisidea."Whatdoyouthinkhemeant?

    Whatisgenocide?Howdidanti-SemitismandpropagandasetthestageforgenocideinWorldWarII? Inwhatwaysdoanti-Semitism,racism,stereotypes,andotherformsofprejudicepersisttoday? Inwhatwaysispropagandastillevidenttoday?Citeexamplesthatyouhaverecentlyviewed. Whatcanwedotocountersuchnegativeimagesandmessagesthatcontainstereotypes,racism,anti-

    Semitism,etc.pastandpresent?22. Asahomeworkassignment,havestudentscompletetheattachedAnti-SemitismTodayworksheet.AdditionalActivities Createananti-hateposter

    o Assignstudentstocreateaposterwiththepurposeofstoppinghateand/orpromotingtolerance.Postersshouldcontainaclearandcreativeanti-hateslogan(forexample,PutYourFiststoaBetterUse).Postersmustalsocontainawellthoughtoutanddetailedimage(forexample,awhitehandandblackhandclaspedtogetherinahandshake).

    WriteaPersonificationPoemo Explaintostudentsthattheywillbeexaminingoneofthethemesexploredinthislessonfurtherina

    creativewritingactivity(suchashate,prejudice,racism,stereotyping,etc.)Forexample,assumingastudentchosetoexplorehate,first,helpstudentspersonifytheirchosenwordbyaskingthemtowritedowntheirresponsestoquestionssuchas: Whatdoeshatelooklike?(Exampleresponses:heisredandcoveredinfire;hatelookslikeaballof

    barbedwireandbrokenglass;hatelookslikeablackstone) Whatdoeshateeat?(acid;brokenglass;snakes;bullets) Whatdoeshatewear?(acloakofknives;asuitofspikes) Whodoeshatehangaroundwith?(Anger;Rage;Violence) Wheredoeshatelive?(inacave;inHell;inthedarkness) Whatdoeshatedo?(tease;hit;murder)

    o Once students understand the concept of personification, allow them to continue brainstorming.ExplainthattheywillcompiletheircreativethoughtsintoaPersonificationPoemofhate.Forexample:

    Hateenterstheroomwithasneerandacrash.Hestormsaroundseekingwindowstosmash.Fillinghisbellywiththejagged,brokenglass,Helooksaroundforsomeonehecanharass.Swoopinghiscoatofbarbedwirearoundhimtight,Hetargetsthevictimofhisnextfight.Butwhatcruel,ignorantHateisntawareof,Isbehindhimstandshisarchenemy,Love.AndsheisbraveandwillputherselfonthelineToensurethatHatedoesntovercomethistime.Andevenifshehastodoitallalone,ShessendingHatepacking,backtohiscaveofahome.

    o Givestudentssomeguidelinesfortheirfinalproject(e.g.thepoemdoesnothavetorhyme;thepoemmustbeatleast10sentences;etc.)andallowthemtosharetheirworkwiththeclasswhenfinished.

    Debate/DiscussFreeExpressiono Foradeliberationactivityonfreedomofexpressionversushatespeech,goto

    http://www.deliberating.org/.UndertheLessonstab,gotoFreeExpressionforthelessonmaterialsandcontent.TheprocedureforleadingstudentdeliberationsonthissubjectcanbefoundundertheLessonstabbyclickingonLessonsProcedure.

    JewishAmericans&Prejudice:

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    o TofurtherexplorethestrugglesofJewishAmericans,usetheactivitieslocatedathttp://www.pbs.org/jewishamericans/jewish_life/anti-semitism.html,orexploreVoicesonAnti-Semitism,apodcastseriesbytheUSHMMathttps://www.ushmm.org/confront-antisemitism/antisemitism-podcast

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    Name:__________________________TheLittleThingsinLife

    Considerthethingsyoudoduringyoureverydaylife.Someofthethingsyoumaydobecauseyouenjoythem,someofthethingsyoumaydooutofnecessity.Considerthefollowingactionsandonascaleof1-5,giveeachascorebasedonhowimportantitistoyou(1beingNOTatallimportant/somethingyoudontcareaboutnotbeingabletodo/somethingyoudontenjoy;and5beingVERYimportant/somethingyoulovedoingorcareaboutverymuch.)Ranking(1-5) Action

    _______ Getagoodjob(doctor,lawyer,teacher,shopowner)

    _______ Readwhateverbookyouareinterestedin

    _______ Playsports/workoutatthegym

    _______ Dateorgetmarried

    _______ Hangoutintheparkwithyourfriends

    _______ Eatoutatyourfavoriterestaurant

    _______ Attendyourchurch

    _______ Readyourfavoritemagazine

    _______ Attendschool

    _______ Gotothemoviesorconcerts

    _______ Feelsafeandprotected

    _______ Comeandgofromyourhomeasyouplease

    _______ Usethetelephone

    _______ Travel

    _______ Ownapet

    _______ Purchasefreshfood.

    Ofalltheactionslistedabove,whichwouldyousayismostimportanttoyouandwhy?

  • 11

    TimelineofRacistPersecutionbytheNazis

    " 1933OnJanuary30,1933,PresidentPaulvonHindenburgappointedAdolphHitlerChancellor.OnFebruary27,1933,theReichstagbuilding(whereGermanParliamentwasheld;similartoAmericasWhiteHouse)wentupinflames.NazisimmediatelyclaimedthatthiswasthebeginningofaCommunistrevolution.(ThisfactleadsmanyhistorianstobelievethatNazisactuallyset,orhelpsetthefire.OthersbelievethataderangedDutchCommunistsetthefire.Theissuehasneverbeenresolved.)ThisincidentpromptedHitlertoconvincePresidentHindenburgtoissueaDecreefortheProtectionofPeopleandStatethatgrantedNazissweepingpowertodealwiththeso-calledemergency.Thislaidthefoundationforapolicestate.WithinmonthsofHitler'sappointmentasChancellor,theDachauconcentrationcampwascreated.TheNazisbeganarrestingCommunists,Socialists,andlaborleaders.Dachaubecameatrainingcenterforconcentrationcampguardsandlatercommandantswhoweretaughtterrortacticstodehumanizetheirprisoners.ParliamentarydemocracyendedwiththeReichstagpassageoftheEnablingAct,whichallowedthegovernmenttoissuelawswithouttheReichstag.Inordertogainfurthercontrol,theNaziscreatedSpecialCourtstopunishpoliticaldissent.InaparallelmovefromApriltoOctober,theregimepassedcivillawsthatbarredJewsfromholdingpositionsinthecivilservice,inlegalandmedicalprofessions,andinteachinganduniversitypositions.TheNazisencouragedboycottsofJewish-ownedshopsandbusinessesandbeganbookburningsofwritingsbyJewsandbyothersnotapprovedbytheReich.Jewswerebarredfromallsportsandathleticclubs.TheproductionofKoshermeatwasbanned.LawsforthepreventionofHereditaryandDefectiveOffspringallowedtheforcedsterilizationofSintiandRoma,peoplewithmentalandphysicaldisabilities,blacks,andothersconsideredinferiororunfit.NaziAnti-Semiticlegislationandpropagandaagainst"Non-Aryans"wasathinlydisguisedattackagainstanyonewhohadJewishparentsorgrandparents.JewsfeltincreasinglyisolatedfromtherestofGermansociety." 1934TheSA(Sturmabteilung)hadbeeninstrumentalinHitler'srisetopower.Inearly1934,therewere2.5millionSAmencomparedwith100,000menintheregulararmy.HitlerknewthattheregulararmyopposedtheSAbecomingitscore.Fearingthepoweroftheregulararmytoforcehimfromoffice,HitlercurriedtheirfavorbyattackingtheleadershipoftheSAinthe"NightoftheLongKnives."HitlerarrestedErnstRhmandscoresofotherSAleadersandhadthemshotbytheSS,whichnowroseinimportance.OnAugust2,1934,PresidentHindenburgdied.HitlercombinedtheofficesofReichChancellorandPresident,declaringhimselfFhrerandReichChancellor,orReichsfhrer(LeaderoftheReich).1935HitlerannouncedtheNurembergLawsin1935.TheselawsstrippedJewsoftheircivilrightsasGermancitizensandseparatedthemfromGermanslegally,socially,andpolitically.Jewswerealsodefinedasaseparateraceunder"TheLawfortheProtectionofGermanBloodandHonor."BeingJewishwasnowdeterminedbyancestry;thustheGermansusedrace,notreligiousbeliefsorpractices,todefinetheJewishpeople.ThislawforbademarriagesoranyromanticrelationshipbetweenJewsandGermans.Hitlerwarneddarklythatifthislawdidnotresolvetheproblem,hewouldturntotheNaziPartyforafinalsolution.Morethan120laws,decrees,andordinanceswereenactedaftertheNuremburgLawsandbeforetheoutbreakofWorldWarII,furthererodingtherightsofGermanJews.ManythousandsofGermanswhohadnotpreviouslyconsideredthemselvesJewsfoundthemselvesdefinedas"non-Aryans."InmanyplacesJewswerebannedfromparks,restaurants,andswimmingpools.RabbisandotherJewishleaderswerestoppedfrompreachingorspeakingpublicly.JewishnewspapersandmagazinesweresuspendedandJewishwritersandeditorswerearrested.

  • 12

    " 1936In1936,BerlinhostedtheOlympics.HitlerviewedthisasaperfectopportunitytopromoteafavorableimageofNazismtotheworld.MonumentalstadiumsandotherOlympicfacilitieswereconstructedasNazishowpieces.LeniRiefenstahlwascommissionedtocreateafilm,Olympia,forthepurposeofNazipropaganda.Somehavecalledherpreviousfilmin1935,TriumphoftheWill,oneofthegreatpropagandapiecesofthecentury.Init,sheportrayedHitlerasagod.Internationalpoliticalunrestprecededthegames.ItwasquestionedwhethertheNaziregimecouldreallyacceptthetermsoftheOlympicCharterofparticipationunrestrictedbyclass,creed,orrace.TherewerecallsforaU.S.boycottofthegames.TheNazisguaranteedthattheywouldallowGermanJewstoparticipate.Theboycottdidnotoccur.WhiletwoGermanswithsomeJewishancestrywereinvitedtobeontheGermanOlympicteam,theGermanJewishathleteGretelBergmann,oneoftheworld'smostaccomplishedhighjumpers,wasnot.ThegreatironyoftheseOlympicswasthat,inthelandof"Aryansuperiority,"itwasJesseOwens,theAfrican-Americantrackstar,whowastheundisputedheroofthegames.DuringtheOlympicGames,BerlinsSintiandRomapopulationswereforcedtomovetoatemporarycampoutsidethecity.Jewswerenolongerallowedtobevets.Jewswerenolongerallowedtoownelectricalandopticalequipment,bicycles,typewriters,orrecords,andwereorderedtohandthemovertotheauthorities.

    1937Jewswerenotallowedtobepharmacists.SintiandRomaalloverGermanywerephotographed,fingerprinted,andregisteredaspartofaNazicampaigntofighttheGypsyMenace." 1938InMarch1938,aspartofHitler'squestforunitingallGerman-speakingpeople,GermanytookoverAustriawithoutbloodshed.Thetake-overoccurredwiththeoverwhelmingapprovaloftheAustrianpeople.NocountriesprotestedthisviolationoftheTreatyofVersailles.Jewswerenotallowedtobedoctors.JewishmenweremadetotakeIsraelasamiddlename;JewishwomenweremadetotakeSaraasamiddlename.JewshadtheirpassportsstampedwithaJ(forJuden,theGermanwordforJew);somehadtheirpassportsremovedtopreventthemfromleavingthecountry.Jewswerebannedfromowningbusinesses.JewishchildrenwerebannedfromattendingGermanschools.Jewswereexcludedfromcinemas,theatres,concerts,exhibitions,beaches,andholidayresorts.Jewishpublishinghousesandbookshopswerecloseddown.Jewish,SintiandRomachildrenwereforbiddentoplaywithAryanchildren.LargenumberofSintiandRomawereimprisonedinconcentrationcamps.InSeptember1938,HitlereyedthenorthwesternareaofCzechoslovakia,calledtheSudetenland,whichhadthreemillionGerman-speakingcitizens.HitlerdidnotwanttomarchintotheSudetenlanduntilhewascertainthatFranceandBritainwouldnotintervene.First,hemetwithBritishPrimeMinisterNevilleChamberlainandthreatenedtogotowarifhedidnotreceivetheterritory.ThenattheMunichConference,HitlerprevaileduponBritain,Franceand,ItalytoagreetothecessionoftheSudetenland.TheWesternpowerschoseappeasementratherthanmilitaryconfrontation.GermanyoccupiedtheSudetenlandonOctober15,1938.InGermany,openAnti-Semitismbecameincreasinglyaccepted,climaxinginthe"NightofBrokenGlass"(Kristallnacht)onNovember9,1938.PropagandaMinisterJosephGoebbelsinitiatedthisfree-for-allagainsttheJews,duringwhichnearly1,000synagoguesweresetonfireand76weredestroyed.Morethan7,000Jewishbusinessesandhomeswerelooted,aboutonehundredJewswerekilledandasmanyas30,000Jewswerearrestedandsenttoconcentrationcampstobetormented,manyformonths.Withindays,theNazisforcedtheJewstotransfertheirbusinessestoAryanhandsandexpelledallJewishpupilsfrompublicschools.TheNazisfurtherpersecutedtheJewsbyforcingthemtopayforthedamagesofKristallnacht.

  • 13

    " 1939Jewswerenotallowedtoleavetheirhomesafter8PM(9PMduringthesummer).Jewscouldbeevictedfromtheirhomeswithoutreasonandwithoutnotice.OnSeptember1,1939,HitlerinvadedPoland,officiallystartingWorldWarII.Twodayslater,BritainandFrance,nowobligedbytreatytohelpPoland,declaredwaronGermany.Hitler'sarmiesusedthetacticofBlitzkrieg,orlightningwar,acombinationofarmoredattackaccompaniedbyairassault.BeforeBritishandFrenchpowercouldbeorganizedindefense,inlessthanfourweeks,Polandcollapsed.Germany'smilitaryconquestputitinapositiontoestablishtheNewOrder,aplantoabuseandeliminateso-calledundesirables,notablyJewsandSlavs.

    1940Jewsnolongerreceivedrationcardsforclothes.JewsinBerlinwereonlyallowedtopurchasegroceriesbetween4PMand5PM.Jewstelephonesweredisconnected.

    1941Jewsnolongerreceivedsoapandshavingcream.Jewswereonlyallowedtousepublictransportontheirwaytowork.AllJewsovertheageofsixhadtowearaYellowStarwithJewwrittenonit.Jewswerenotallowedtousepublictelephones.Jewswerebannedfrompubliclibraries.Jewswerebannedfromusingpublictransportduringrushhourandwereonlyallowedtositdownifnooneelsewasstanding.MassdeportationsofGermanJewstoovercrowdedghettosinNazi-occupiedPoland,Lithuania,andtheUkraineandCzechoslovakiabegan.JewswereforbiddentoleavecountriesruledbytheNazis." 1942Jewswereforcedtohandovertheirfursandwoolenclothing.Jewswerenotallowedtobuynewspapersandmagazines.AllJewishhomesweremarkedwiththeStarofDavid.Jewswerenotallowedtousepublictransportatanytime.Jewswerenotallowedtohavepets.AllschoolswereclosedtoJewishchildren.Jewswerenotallowedtoreceiveeggsorfreshmilk.Jewswerenotallowedtobuybooks.ThedeportationofGermanSintiandRomatoAuschwitzbegan.Bytheendof1942,150,000GermanJewshadbeendeportedtoghettosanddeathcampsineasternEurope.

    1943Earlyintheyear;afurther20,000GermanJewsweredeportedtotheeast.InMay,BerlinwasdeclaredfreeofJews.JewsstilllivinginGermanyandAustrialostalloftheirremaininglegalrightsandweretosurrendertotheNazisecretpolicetheGestapo.

    1945Anorderwasgiventodestroyallfilesdealingwithanti-Jewishactivities." Source:http://www.suite101.com/lesson.cfm/17387/728

  • 14

    Name:________________________

    ResponseSheetTimelineofRacistPersecutionbytheNazis

    Reviewtheyear(s)providedtoyouwithyourgroupmembersandtogether,summarizethefollowing.Bepreparedtoteachtheremainderofclassaboutwhatoccurredduringtheyear(s)assignedtoyou.1.WhatspecificthingswereJewsandothernon-Aryansrestrictedfromaccordingtoyourpassage?2.WhatwerethevariouswaysexplainedinthepassagethatHitlergainedstrength,power,andmomentum?3.Whatroledidracism,anti-Semitism,and/orprejudiceplayintheoccurrencestakingplaceinyourassignedyear(s)?4.Whatquestionsdoyouhaveregardingyourpassage?(Whatdontyouunderstand,whatwouldyouliketoknowmoreabout,etc.)5.Whatwasmostshockingtoyouregardingthepassageyoureadandwhy?

    Asyoulistentoyourclassmatesreportontheyear(s)assignedtothem,usethechartonthebacktotakenotes.

  • 15

    TimelineofRacistPersecutionbytheNazisNoteSheet

    Asyoulistentoyouclassmatesreportbackontheirassignedyear(s),takenotesonthefollowingchart.

    Date RestrictionsagainstJews/Non-Aryans HowdidHitlergainadditionalpowerthisyear?1933

    1934

    1935

    1936

    1937

    1938

    1939

    1940

    1941

    1942

    1943

    1944

    1945

  • 16

    TestimonyExcerpts-SchoolsDuringtheHolocaust

    RosemarieMoskin,14yearsoldduringtheHolocaustIsatdownbymyselfinoneofthebackrowsoftheauditorium,wonderingwhattheprincipalwantedfromus.AndwithoutreallylisteningtohiswordsIknewwhathewasgoingtosay.Somedayyouwillreturn-wewillwelcomeyoubackwithopenarms.Butnowwemustpart.MyheartisheavyasItellyouthisnews.ButIhavenochoice.Sourcematerialtakenfrom:I.B.Tatelbaum,ThroughOurEyes:ChildrenWitnesstheHolocaust(YadVashem:Jerusalem,2004)." MosheSandberg/Sanbar,17yearsoldduringtheHolocaust...Oneteacherinparticularwentoutofhiswaytohumiliateme.HewasahistoryteachernamedBencur.DuringonelessonhebegantoquotefromaspeechofHitlerstotheeffectthattheJewsshouldbewipedofffromthefaceoftheearth.TurningtomeheaskedwhatIthoughtofthespeechandofthatparticularsentence.IdidnotknowwhattoreplyandIthinkIsaidnothing.Sohebegantoshout,sayingthatIwastreatingthequestionandhimandalloftheteachersdisrespectfully,andhefinallydismissedmefromtheclass.Sourcematerialtakenfrom:I.B.Tatelbaum,ThroughOurEyes:ChildrenWitnesstheHolocaust(YadVashem:Jerusalem,2004)." NachmanKoren,aseniorteacherSometwoweeksaftertheGermansentered,[we]appliedforalicensetoopenaJewishschool.WeconductedlessonsinthehallattheoldTarbutschool[...]Thisarrangementwasshort-lived[...]AftertheGermansbeganarrestingPolishteachers[inNovember1939]theybegandestroyingallthehighschools.OnedaytwoSSmenshowedupatthegymnasiumhallandorderedallthepupilssenthome.Theysarcasticallysaid,Fromnowon,welleducatetheJewishyouth.Wedsoonknowthemeaningofthiseducation.Allpublicschoolingwasimmediatelyshutdown.[...]Webegansearchingforwaystogetaroundtheorders.Coverteducationhadbegun.Thereweresome100teachersinLublin,andmostorganizedsecretclasses,taughtinprivatehomes.Eachclasshadsome10pupils,mostlyfromnearbyhomes,offittingageandlevel.Thelocationoftheseclasseswouldchangefromtimetotime,tomakethemdifficulttotrackdown.Thechildrenfeltverystronglyagainsttheoppressiveorders.Theywereawaretheywerepartofanactofdefiance,andstudiedwithglee.Withthumpinghearts,theywouldstudyandalsokeepwatch,lesttheyellofanSSmanbeheard. Source:N.Koren,TheTroublesofEducationandSufferingoftheChildrenintheGhetto,inBlumenthal,N.&Kozhan,M.(eds.),TheEncyclopediaoftheJewishDiaspora.(Jerusalem-TelAviv:TheEncyclopediaoftheJewishDiasporaPublications,1957)p.725.[Hebrew]" NesseGodin,survivoroftheSiauliaighettoinLithuaniaIhadmanyfriendsattheageof13,andIhadmanydreams.Butmydreamsdidnotcometrue.

    Source:https://www.ushmm.org/educators/online-workshop/personal-testimony/life-before

  • 17

    ExploringPropaganda

    Image1

    Texttranslation:TheEternalJew

    Discussandrespondtothefollowingquestionsbasedontheaboveimageinyourgroup.1. Whatmessagedoesthisimagesend?2. Whodoyouthinktheintendedaudiencewas?3. Whatdoyouthinkitspurposewas?4. Whatstereotypesoranti-Semiticmessagesdoyouidentifyinthisimage?5. Whatmightwelearnaboutsocietybasedonthisimage?

  • 18

    ExploringPropagandaImage2

    Discussandrespondtothefollowingquestionsbasedontheaboveimageinyourgroup.1. Whatmessagedoesthisimagesend?2. Whodoyouthinktheintendedaudiencewas?3. Whatdoyouthinkitspurposewas?4. Whatstereotypesoranti-Semiticmessagesdoyouidentifyinthisimage?5. Whatmightwelearnaboutsocietybasedonthisimage?

    ExploringPropagandaImage3

  • 19

    Discussandrespondtothefollowingquestionsbasedontheaboveimageinyourgroup.

    1. Whatmessagedoesthisimagesend?2. Whodoyouthinktheintendedaudiencewas?3. Whatdoyouthinkitspurposewas?4. Whatstereotypesoranti-Semiticmessagesdoyouidentifyinthisimage?5. Whatmightwelearnaboutsocietybasedonthisimage?

  • 20

    ExploringPropagandaImage4

    Discussandrespondtothefollowingquestionsbasedontheaboveimageinyourgroup.

    1. Whatmessagedoesthisimagesend?2. Whodoyouthinktheintendedaudiencewas?3. Whatdoyouthinkitspurposewas?4. Whatstereotypesoranti-Semiticmessagesdoyouidentifyinthisimage?5. Whatmightwelearnaboutsocietybasedonthisimage?

  • 21

    ExploringPropagandaImage5

    Texttranslation:LongLiveGermany!

    Discussandrespondtothefollowingquestionsbasedontheaboveimageinyourgroup.1. Whatmessagedoesthisimagesend?2. Whodoyouthinktheintendedaudiencewas?3. Whatdoyouthinkitspurposewas?4. Whatstereotypesoranti-Semiticmessagesdoyouidentifyinthisimage?5. Whatmightwelearnaboutsocietybasedonthisimage?

  • 22

    ExploringPropagandaImage6

    TextTranslation:Lifeisnotworthliving

    Whenonedoesnotresisttheparasite,Neversatisfiedasitcreepsabout.

    Wemustandwillwin.September1944

    Discussandrespondtothefollowingquestionsbasedontheaboveimageinyourgroup.1. Whatmessagedoesthisimagesend?2. Whodoyouthinktheintendedaudiencewas?3. Whatdoyouthinkitspurposewas?4. Whatstereotypesoranti-Semiticmessagesdoyouidentifyinthisimage?5. Whatmightwelearnaboutsocietybasedonthisimage?

  • 23

    Name:____________________________

    Anti-SemitismToday

    TheHolocausthappenedapproximatelysixtyyearsago,yetanti-Semitismhasnotdisappeared.WemustnotsimplisticallyequatetodayssituationtothatofNaziGermanyinthe1930s.Afterall,JewsinEuropeliveasequalcitizensindemocraticnationsandtheyenjoycivilrightsprotectedbylaw.However,inseveralEuropeancountries,Jewishpupilsandtheirfamilieshaverecentlybeenthevictimsofviolentanti-Semiticattacks.Synagogueshavebeenburned,Jewishcemeterieshavebeendesecratedwithswastikas,andwallsinJewishneighborhoodshavebeendefacedwithgraffiticallingforDeathtoJewsandJewstoGasChambers.Insummer2005,JewishcemeteriesacrosstheEuropeancontinentwerevandalized.Forinstance,inBudapestapdproximately130gravesweredesecrated.IntheEastLondondistrictofWestHam,90headstoneswerevandalized.InPrestwichnearNorthManchester,96Jewishgravesweresmashed,andinKazan,thecapitalofTatarstan,vandalsspray-paintedredswastikason26tombstonesinthelocalJewishcemetery.Anationalpollof1,000AmericanadultsbytheAnti-DefamationLeague(ADL)conductedMarch10throughApril3,2015foundthat19%ofAmericans-orabout24millionadults-holdviewsaboutJewsthatare"unquestionablyanti-Semitic."AnADLsurveycompletedin2016foundthatThenumberofviolentanti-SemiticassaultstakingplaceintheUnitedStatesrosedramatically lastyear,contributingtoathree(3)percentrise inthetotalnumberofanti-Jewishincidentsreportedin2015.Articlestakenfrom:http://www1.yadvashem.org/education/lessonplan/english/antisemitism/antisemitism.htm|http://global100.adl.org/public/ADL-Global-100-Executive-Summary.pdf|http://www.adl.org/press-center/press-releases/anti-semitism-usa/2015-audit-anti-semitic-incidents.html#.V-59cpMrLMUDiscussionQuestions(answeronthebackofthissheet)1.DoesthesprayingofNazisymbolsinJewishcemeterieshurttheimageoftodaysEurope?Explainyouranswer.2.Areyouawareofanti-Semiticincidentsthathavetakenplaceinyourschoolorinyourregion?Explain.Ifso,howweretheyhandledbytheauthorities?3.Haveyouseenexamplesofhate,racism,prejudice,orstereotypinginyourcommunity?Explain.Ifso,howwasithandled?4.Whatisourresponsibilityascitizenstocounterorspeakoutagainstsuchinjustice?

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