anti-semitism an underlying factor in the holocaust chy4u
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Anti-SemitismAn Underlying Factor in the HolocaustCHY4U
Early History of Anti-SemitismJews = differentRome before Christianity Jews = monotheistic, Roman state religion = pagan (polytheistic)
Early ChristianityJews accused of deicide, killing the son of God (Jesus)
Middle Ages and Anti-SemitismThis period provides the roots of some of the most common images of and myths about JewsIn many myths, Jews are often associated with moneyThis may originate from the fact that Jews werent allowed to own land in many parts of Europe; they often became money lenders, especially to royalty in England and France. In a sacred Christian world usury was seen as immoral.
Middle Ages, contIn many myths Jews are often associated with the devilCan be traced back to the murder of a boy in 12th century England that was wrongly attributed to local Jews. Since the local people were hoping to get a spot on the pilgrimage route (money) they whipped up the story. The myth spread.Jews portrayed with horns and tails, as the Anti-Christ
Middle Ages, contMyth of ritual murder / ritual slaughter or blood libelMyth that Jews abducted Christian children at Easter time in order to re-enact the crucifixion and mix childrens blood with matzah at Passover time. Though the Church did not officially sanction such myths, they were popularized and people came to fear Jews (e.g., pogroms (massacres) common at Easter time).
Jewish BloodRacial and biological aspects of anti-Semitism began to surface in Spain in the 1400s. Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492 if they didnt convert to Christianity.
Even converts (conversos) were persecuted because they still had Jewish blood.
Luther and the Jews Luther thought there was no good Jew but a converted Jew.
Integrate or be expelled.
When Jews didnt convert his followers expressed their anger by setting synagogues on fire and destroying Jewish homes.
Enlightenment and French RevolutionEnlightened Despots introduced toleration of Jews.
Jews gained citizenship in France in 1791.By contrast, in Britain in 1858, Italy 1870 and Germany 1871.
Era of Nationalism (Germany)Cultural nationalism in Germany focused on the idea of volk, or German people/nation.
This was a conservative idea going back to the that there was a certain German character.
Jews were seen as being outside of this, or alien.
Criticized by the Right and Left (ironically)Being attacked for being right and left allowed Jews to be easily targeted by conservatives (who feared the left-wing), the middle class (who feared both extremes) and the unemployed (who resented modernization).
Jews in Germany Leading Up To HitlerMade up less than one percent of the population600 000 people100 000 had served in World War OneMost were highly assimilatedSpoke GermanHad high rates of inter-marriageSaw themselves as Germans
DerSturmer DerSturmer, 1934 accused European Jews of wanting war while everyone else wanted peaceUSHMM. Holocaust Encyclopedia: Protocols of the Elders of Zion Artifact. April 1, 2010. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/gallery_da.php?ModuleId=10007058 (Dec. 2, 2010).
1939: medieval ritual murder image on the cover
USHMM. Propaganda Artifact Gallery. N.d. http://www.ushmm.org/propaganda/exhibit.html#/records/data/records/der-sturmer-ritual-murder.xml (Dec. 3, 2010).
Propaganda in TextbooksGerman childrens book, 1936: Jews are not wanted here.USHMM. Holocaust Encyclopedia: Anti-Semitism. April 1, 2010. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005175 (Dec. 2, 2010).