HOLOCAUST Holocaust cannot be understood without understanding anti- Semitism Defined: Hatred, Contempt, Stereotyping and Fear of Jews as Jews Distinguish.

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  • HOLOCAUSTHolocaust cannot be understood without understanding anti-SemitismDefined: Hatred, Contempt, Stereotyping and Fear of Jews as JewsDistinguish anti-Semitism from plain hostility or xenophobia.

    In the absence of these definitions anti-Semitism does not exist

  • TEACHING OF CONTEMPTJews seen as allies of the devil; the anti-Christ.Jews seen as not just wrong but inherently evilRole of Jews divinely ordained JEWS SEEN ASDEMONICWICKEDUNBELIEVERDOOMEDSATANIC PEVERSEGREEDYCHRIST KILLERREJECTED BY GOD

  • EARLY CHRONOLOGYPower of the Medieval Church395 St. John Chrysostom denounces Jews of Antioch1096 First Crusade1144 First recorded Ritual Murder (Norwich, England)1290 Jews expelled from England1306 Jews expelled from France1492 Jews driven out of Spain1534 Martin Luther Concerning the Jews and their Lies1648 Decade of Progroms in Poland (Chmielnicki) Up to half a million slaughtered

  • Causes of JEW HATREDMysteries ExplainedBlack Death 1347-1350Well poisonersDesecration of the HostRitual MurdersThe Inquisition

    Jews burned at the stake or otherwise slaughteredForced conversions or deathMarginalized and without legal protection.Marked

  • 1905 PROTOCOLS OF THE ELDERS OF ZIONWidely circulated (and still in Arab countries)Purported meeting of 300 Jews in Basel Switzerland in 1887Actually written by agent of Russian secret police.Serialized in Dearborn Gazette by Henry Ford!RUMORS and MISINFORMATIONPlot destruction of ChristianityTakeover of the world by Jews and FreemasonsJewish rule over all finance

  • STEREOTYPINGJEWS AND MONEYNot allowed in Guilds or to work at most tradesMoneylending forbidden to Christians because it endangered Christian soulsSince Jewish souls were deemed lost it was left to them to provide this necessary service in the expanding commercial life of Europe

  • Money Is The God Of The Jews: "The God of the Jews is money. To earn money, he commits the greatest crimes. He will not rest until he can sit on a huge money sack, until he has become the king of money."*

  • SECULARIZATION OF a-S The identity of Jews with evil was so pervasive that as the role of the Church weakened, anti-Semitism became secularized and independent of theologyEuropean liberals demanded that Jews sever themselves from their roots and their traditionsVoltaire: The Jews were the enemies of mankind

  • TWO 19th CENTURY INNOVATIONSSOCIAL DARWINISM MYSTICAL IDEAS OF RACE Based on language and physical characteristics

    (Redneck scenario) SCIENTIFIC BASIS Sought Respectability (Scientific Method)

    BiologicalZoologicalStatistical

  • TWO TYPES OF ANTI-SEMITISMCLASSICALRELIGIOUSMYSTICAL

    Hatred based on religious convictions or oppositionRACIALBIOLOGICAL

    Hatred based on concepts of racial and biological superiority/inferiority

  • ARYANRelates to a group of languages based on Indian Sanskrit

    Aryan commercial society lives by honest workJews live on speculation and as parasites on the workersAryans can only survive by destroying the parasites ARYAN BELIEFSNatural SelectionSurvival of FittestPersonified by the PeasantA Gospel of WorkService for the Common Good

  • How to Tell a Jew: "The Jewish nose is bent. It looks like the number six..."*

  • The Poisonous Mushroom: "Just as it is often hard to tell a toadstool from an edible mushroom, so too it is often very hard to recognize the Jew as a swindler and criminal..."

  • Mein KampfVicious anti-SemiteSocial DarwinistExtreme nationalist, Aryan race Master race

  • Mein Kampf (1933)

  • THE GREAT WARGuns of August A nation united and a sense of common purposeGlory with a capital GTHE REALITYNew WarNew WeaponsUnimagined LossesU.S. Participation

  • The March Towards Nazism..and the Holocaust

    BAD THINGS HAPPEN IN BAD TIMES

  • NAZI ROOTS1919 German Workers Party founded by Anton DrexlerOne of MANY Right Wing post-war partiesHitler joins as #7Ernst RoehmRudolf HessHerman Goering (rich WWI flying ace)Jules Streicher (Der Stuermer)Joseph Goebbels

  • HITLERSet the anti-Semitic Course. It was critical because he made it so.The Appeal: Aroused a nation. Imagined a powerful Jewish conspiracy with paranoid delusions about WWIRecognized and addressed real fears and grievances

  • Poster sketch by Adolf Hitler "National Socialism will free Germany from the lie of Sole Guilt"

    In reference to the Treaty of Versailles placement of sole guilt of WWI on Germany.

  • Weimar Constitution of 1919Bicameral Reichstag7 -year term President - elected by the peopleChancellor appointed by President & confirmed by ReichstagPresident had power to dissolve Reichstag & call for new electionsMajority of Reichstag could force Chancellor to resign

  • Mistake of the Weimar ConstitutionArticle 48 gave President emergency powerscould suspend civil rights & arrest traitorscould make decrees in name of national securitycould hold the Chancellor position - presidential chancellor

  • Aftermath of the Treaty of VersaillesGermany in the 1920sDevastation of DefeatHumiliation of the Diktat Treaty of VersaillesWeakness of the Weimar Republic

  • Economic Hardship of the 1920s

    German children are starving" portrait done by German artist (1920's)

  • Exchange rates, US Dollar to Mark, 1918-1923 Source : Gerald D. Feldman, The Great Disorder, Oxford : UP 1997, p.5

    Jan. 1918 Jan. 1919 Jan. 1920 Jan. 1921 Jan. 1922 April 1922 July 1922 Oct. 1922 Jan. 1923 Feb. 1923 5.21 8.20 64.80 64.91 191.81 291.00 493.22 3,180.96 17,972.00 27,918.00 Mar. 1923 Apr. 1923 May 1923 June 1923 July 1923 Aug. 1923 Sept. 1923 Oct. 1923 Nov. 1923 Dec. 1923 21,190.00 24,475.00 47,670.00 109,966.00 353,412.00 4,620,455.00 98,860,000.00 25,260,000,000.00 2,193,600,000,000.00 4,200,000,000,000.00

  • Gustav StresemannChancellor (1923-1929)Aimed to restore Germanys position in the world and hoped that cooperation would lead to fairer treatment of Germany and would speed up Germanys recovery.Aimed to build closer links with the USA, the USSR and France.

  • Locarno and the League of Nations

    Dawes Plan 1925New reparations payment schedule that included a large loan to help stabilize Germanys economy

    Locarno Pact 1925 (Germany, Britain, France, Belgium and Italy)Rejected the use of invasionSome thought this made Germany look even weaker!

    League of Nations (1926)Germany joined the League and was recognized as a legitimate and stable power

  • Gustav StresemannChancellor (1923-1929)Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (1926)

  • However.No significant revision of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.Failed to achieve widespread support from the German population:Right wing opponents, including Nazis, argued the Locarno Pact made Germany look weak. Little German national pride.

  • National Socialist German Workers Party - Nazi

    Anti- Marxist: not popular among the working class who were MarxistsAppealed to patriotic Germans who were not factory workers - shopkeepers, clerks, teacher, civil servants..

  • Germany, presidents, 1919-1923

    1919-1925 Friedrich Ebert SPD

    Germany, chancellors, 1919-1923

    1919 1919-1920 1920 1920-1921 1921-1922 1922-1923 1923 Philipp Scheidemann Gustav Bauer Hermann Mueller Konstantin Fehrenbach Josef Wirth Wilhelm Cuno Gustav Stresemann SPD SPD SPD Zentrum Zentrum DVP

  • Hitlerthe appealTook advantage of chaotic conditionsAppealed to the young rather than the oldAddressed a people humiliated, disarmed, frightened, unemployedTold them the enemy were the Jews and the MarxistsAccused Jews of power when in fact they had none

  • "Youth Serves the Fhrer" is the title of this Hitler Youth recruiting poster. This organization mobilized boys into the Nazi community through sport and hiking, and later trained them for military combat.

  • German reaction to the Treaty of Versailles

    Unrepresented at Peace conferenceNot allowed to keep any of their colonies Forced to accept terms - diktatAngry with military reductionsInjustice - War guilt, loss of land etcReparations - set too high (6.6 billion)

  • Beer Hall Putsch - 1923Hilters plan to overthrow the Weimar Republic by gaining the support of influencial men.

    ie. Bavarian Prime Minister, Gustav von Kahr and retired general, Ludendorff.

  • Nov. 9, 1923

    In Munich, staged a march with 3000 supporters to overthrow the November Criminals

  • Beer Hall Putsch failedHowever.Herman Gorring, Ernst Rohm, Rudolph Hess involved in the Putsch.Hitler & German Workers Party gained publicityHitler arrested - wrote Mein Kampf

  • NAZIS IDEOLOGYState based on:ARYANLEBENSRAUMFUEHRER PRINZIP

  • MACHTERGREIFUNG(SEIZURE OF POWER)From a marginal group of radical misfits in 1919 to Germanys single largest party in 1932Helped by deteriorating world economy in 1929Come to Power Jan. 30, 1933Gleichstaltung (synchronization)

  • How does an unknown with radical views become leader of Germany?

  • Reichstag Vote (Nazi Party)May 1928 2.6%Sept. 1930 18.3%July 1932 largest party.

  • HITLER COMES TO POWER

  • Jan. 1933 Hitler appointed Chancellor

  • Clemenceau, the Vampire

  • JANUARY 30, 1933

  • Georges, Grim Reaper, The Nation (April, 1933)

  • This painting by Arthur Kampf commemorates the Nazi seizure of power on 30 January 1933. There was a huge torch lit procession that evening in Berlin.Source: Die Kunst im Dritten Reich, January, 1938.

  • April 1935: Hitler canceling the Versailles Treaty and rebuilding his army and air force.

  • 1933 BOOK BURNING

  • THE GREAT TEMPTATIONNazis both rallied and paralyzed: major psychic appeal to massesHitler promised real solutions to real grievancesSaw in Hitler Hope, Order and PowerRestored sense of belongingChurches and the elites back down or climb on board

    Transformed politics into permanent delirium. It became easy to overlook what was ominous and evilGERMANS WERE DRAWN TO ANTI-SEMITISM BECAUSE THEY WERE DRAWN TO NAZISM!

  • Upon the death of President Von Hindenburg, Hitler becomes Fuhrer of Germany

  • NUREMBERG LAWSSeptember 15, 1935 and Later RACE LAWS DESIGNED TO SEGREGATE, ISOLATE AND REMOVE JEWS AS FAR AS POSSIBLE FROM GERMAN SOCIETY

  • Slowly and methodically taking away the rights of Jews.

  • November Criminals

    Left-wing traitors (liberals, socialists & Jews) who stabbed in the back (Dolchtoss)

  • Quickly and methodically, Hitler limits the rights of German people. Trades unions abolishedPolitical parties banned Massive Book BurnState control press, media, cinema, radio, art, orchestraLocal state assemblies dissolve

  • Rights Denied

    Jews must retire from their jobs @ universities and govtMarriages & Extramarital relations btw. Jews and Germans forbiddenJews cannot be employed as servants in German households.Jews cannot display the national flagJews lost their citizenship, cannot vote Nuremberg LawsJews had to wear yellow arm bands, then arm bands with yellow stars.Jews werent allowed to go to school or play German music.

  • At the same time, Hitler is slowly and methodically taking away the rights of Jews.

  • Hitler will violate the Treaty of Versailles (1936) by moving troops and artillery across the Rhineland.

  • In 1937, the Nazis organized a traveling exhibition featuring virulent anti-Semitic materials under the title "Der Ewige Jude" ("The Eternal Jew").

  • NAZI OLYMPICS, AUGUST 1936AWARDED TO GERMANY SOME YEARS EARLIER

    HUGE OPPORTUNITY FOR GERMANY TO STRUT ITS STUFF

    GERMANS WHITEWASH SIGNS OF ANTI-SEMITISMAVERY BRUNDAGE HEAD OF U.S. OLYMPIC COMMITTEE SUGGESTS JEWS ARE BEHIND BOYCOTT EFFORTSSUCCESS OF EVENT DEMONSTRATES TO HITLER LACK OF WORLDWIDE CRITICISM

  • German soldiers dive in full field equipment in a pre-game show at Olympic swimming trials at Halberstadt. July 27, 1936.

  • Olympics in BerlinFor two weeks in August 1936, Adolf Hitler's Nazi dictatorship camouflaged its racist, militaristic character while hosting the Summer Olympics.

    The magazine Das Deutsche Madel (The German Girl) portrays the "ideal" female Aryan athlete. August 1935.

  • OlympicsMinimizing its anti-Semitic agenda and plans for territorial expansion, the regime exploited the Games to impress many foreign spectators and journalists with an image of a peaceful, tolerant Germany.

  • Having rejected a proposed boycott of the 1936 Olympics, the United States and other western democracies missed the opportunity to take a stand

  • 1938-1939ALL JEWISH RETAIL STORES AND BUSINESSES ARYANIZEDALL JEWISH STUDENTS EXPELLED FROM SCHOOLSHITLERS VERNICHTUNG SPEECH TO REICHTAG (Jan. 30, 39)WAR STARTS SEPT. 1, 1939T-4 PROGRAM BEGINS

  • Munich Agreement 1938 Britain, France, Italy,Germany agreed to give carve Czechoslovakia and give Hitler the SudetenlandAPPEASEMENT DOES NOT WORK

  • ANSCHLUSS - MARCH, 1938

  • 1938EVIAN (July)MUNICH CONFERENCE (Sept. 29)SWISS REQUEST JEWISH PASSPORTS MARKED WITH J (Oct 5)17,000 GERMAN POLES EXPELLED (Oct. 28)

  • Anschluss (March 1938)Germany takes over and annexes Austria. Vviolation of the Treaty of Versailles

  • KRISTALLNACHTNovember 1938MOST SYNOGOGUES BURNEDSEVERAL HUNDRED JEWS KILLED7,500 JEWISH SHOPS DESTROYED30,000 JEWS SENT TO CAMPS FOR RANSOMJEWS FINED 1 BILLION MARKS150,000 MORE JEWS FLEE GERMANY (ABOUT 180,000 STILL LEFT)

  • Stephen Roth, Art Has Become Very Spontaneous and Sincere Under the Supervision of National Socialism (1940)SOCIAL REALISM

  • NAZI FRUSTRATION(DO THE MATH)ABOUT 500,000 JEWS IN GERMANY IN 1933 (Less than 1% of population)ABOUT 200,000 EMIGRATE 1933-1939ABOUT 190,000 AUSTRIAN JEWS ARE ADDED IN 1938

  • EMIGRATION ENDSJanuary 1933: 525,000 Jews in Germany

    Sept 1, 1939 About 250,000 Jews Left in GermanyHitler attacks PolandTwo Weeks Later: 3 Million Jews in PolandHitler attacks LithuainiaTwo Years Later: 5 Million Jews in Russia

  • TIPPING POINTQUESTIONWhat Was the Tipping Point ?

  • March 1939Hitler invades Czechoslovakia

  • 1939 Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

  • THE FINAL SOLUTION 1939-1945

  • 1939 INTERIM SOLUTIONMOVEMENTSept.: Heydrich (Head of SD) Proposes GhettosMARKINGNov.: Jews Forced to Wear StarMURDER Einzelaktionen and Einsatzgruppen

  • JUDENSTERN

  • GHETTOSClear German AreasRemove Jews from CountrysideConcentrate JewsStarted Winter 1939Over 100 GhettosLODZ, WARSAW, LUBLIN, RADOM. LWOWJudenrat

  • The Warsaw RevoltApril-May 1943 armed revolt after rumors that the Germans would deport the remaining ghetto inhabitants to the Treblinka killing center. As German SS and police units entered the ghetto, members of the Jewish Fighting Organization (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa; ZOB) and other Jewish groups attacked German tanks with Molotov cocktails, hand grenades, and a handful of small arms.

    It took the vastly superior German forces nearly a month before they were able to completely pacify the ghetto and deport virtually all of the remaining inhabitants.

  • FINAL SOLUTIONTransition from forced emigration to annihilationCrystallized Spring-Summer 1941 with Barbarossa and the Eastern OccupationNo Wartime RestraintsFew Mixed MarriagesJews Not IntegratedStricter Secrecy and Security

  • MURDER TECHNOLOGYT-4 ProgramEinsatzgruppenGas VansFixed InstallationsZyklon BStarvation, Disease, Medical Experiments, Hangings, Exposure1.4 million shot, 4.5 million gassed or killed in camps

  • WANNSEE CONFERENCEJanuary 20, 1942

    Decision: Murder All Jews Within the Reich and Occupied Areas

  • FOUR EINSATZGRUPPEN

  • EINSATZGRUPPEN

  • TWO...

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