holocaust holocaust cannot be understood without understanding anti- semitism defined: hatred,...
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HOLOCAUSTHolocaust cannot be understood without understanding anti-SemitismDefined: Hatred, Contempt, Stereotyping and Fear of Jews as JewsDistinguish anti-Semitism from plain hostility or xenophobia.
In the absence of these definitions anti-Semitism does not exist
TEACHING OF CONTEMPTJews seen as allies of the devil; the anti-Christ.Jews seen as not just wrong but inherently evilRole of Jews divinely ordained JEWS SEEN ASDEMONICWICKEDUNBELIEVERDOOMEDSATANIC PEVERSEGREEDYCHRIST KILLERREJECTED BY GOD
EARLY CHRONOLOGYPower of the Medieval Church395 St. John Chrysostom denounces Jews of Antioch1096 First Crusade1144 First recorded Ritual Murder (Norwich, England)1290 Jews expelled from England1306 Jews expelled from France1492 Jews driven out of Spain1534 Martin Luther Concerning the Jews and their Lies1648 Decade of Progroms in Poland (Chmielnicki) Up to half a million slaughtered
Causes of JEW HATREDMysteries ExplainedBlack Death 1347-1350Well poisonersDesecration of the HostRitual MurdersThe Inquisition
Jews burned at the stake or otherwise slaughteredForced conversions or deathMarginalized and without legal protection.Marked
1905 PROTOCOLS OF THE ELDERS OF ZIONWidely circulated (and still in Arab countries)Purported meeting of 300 Jews in Basel Switzerland in 1887Actually written by agent of Russian secret police.Serialized in Dearborn Gazette by Henry Ford!RUMORS and MISINFORMATIONPlot destruction of ChristianityTakeover of the world by Jews and FreemasonsJewish rule over all finance
STEREOTYPINGJEWS AND MONEYNot allowed in Guilds or to work at most tradesMoneylending forbidden to Christians because it endangered Christian soulsSince Jewish souls were deemed lost it was left to them to provide this necessary service in the expanding commercial life of Europe
Money Is The God Of The Jews: "The God of the Jews is money. To earn money, he commits the greatest crimes. He will not rest until he can sit on a huge money sack, until he has become the king of money."*
SECULARIZATION OF a-S The identity of Jews with evil was so pervasive that as the role of the Church weakened, anti-Semitism became secularized and independent of theologyEuropean liberals demanded that Jews sever themselves from their roots and their traditionsVoltaire: The Jews were the enemies of mankind
TWO 19th CENTURY INNOVATIONSSOCIAL DARWINISM MYSTICAL IDEAS OF RACE Based on language and physical characteristics
(Redneck scenario) SCIENTIFIC BASIS Sought Respectability (Scientific Method)
TWO TYPES OF ANTI-SEMITISMCLASSICALRELIGIOUSMYSTICAL
Hatred based on religious convictions or oppositionRACIALBIOLOGICAL
Hatred based on concepts of racial and biological superiority/inferiority
ARYANRelates to a group of languages based on Indian Sanskrit
Aryan commercial society lives by honest workJews live on speculation and as parasites on the workersAryans can only survive by destroying the parasites ARYAN BELIEFSNatural SelectionSurvival of FittestPersonified by the PeasantA Gospel of WorkService for the Common Good
How to Tell a Jew: "The Jewish nose is bent. It looks like the number six..."*
The Poisonous Mushroom: "Just as it is often hard to tell a toadstool from an edible mushroom, so too it is often very hard to recognize the Jew as a swindler and criminal..."
Mein KampfVicious anti-SemiteSocial DarwinistExtreme nationalist, Aryan race Master race
Mein Kampf (1933)
THE GREAT WARGuns of August A nation united and a sense of common purposeGlory with a capital GTHE REALITYNew WarNew WeaponsUnimagined LossesU.S. Participation
The March Towards Nazism..and the Holocaust
BAD THINGS HAPPEN IN BAD TIMES
NAZI ROOTS1919 German Workers Party founded by Anton DrexlerOne of MANY Right Wing post-war partiesHitler joins as #7Ernst RoehmRudolf HessHerman Goering (rich WWI flying ace)Jules Streicher (Der Stuermer)Joseph Goebbels
HITLERSet the anti-Semitic Course. It was critical because he made it so.The Appeal: Aroused a nation. Imagined a powerful Jewish conspiracy with paranoid delusions about WWIRecognized and addressed real fears and grievances
Poster sketch by Adolf Hitler "National Socialism will free Germany from the lie of Sole Guilt"
In reference to the Treaty of Versailles placement of sole guilt of WWI on Germany.
Weimar Constitution of 1919Bicameral Reichstag7 -year term President - elected by the peopleChancellor appointed by President & confirmed by ReichstagPresident had power to dissolve Reichstag & call for new electionsMajority of Reichstag could force Chancellor to resign
Mistake of the Weimar ConstitutionArticle 48 gave President emergency powerscould suspend civil rights & arrest traitorscould make decrees in name of national securitycould hold the Chancellor position - presidential chancellor
Aftermath of the Treaty of VersaillesGermany in the 1920sDevastation of DefeatHumiliation of the Diktat Treaty of VersaillesWeakness of the Weimar Republic
Economic Hardship of the 1920s
German children are starving" portrait done by German artist (1920's)
Exchange rates, US Dollar to Mark, 1918-1923 Source : Gerald D. Feldman, The Great Disorder, Oxford : UP 1997, p.5
Jan. 1918 Jan. 1919 Jan. 1920 Jan. 1921 Jan. 1922 April 1922 July 1922 Oct. 1922 Jan. 1923 Feb. 1923 5.21 8.20 64.80 64.91 191.81 291.00 493.22 3,180.96 17,972.00 27,918.00 Mar. 1923 Apr. 1923 May 1923 June 1923 July 1923 Aug. 1923 Sept. 1923 Oct. 1923 Nov. 1923 Dec. 1923 21,190.00 24,475.00 47,670.00 109,966.00 353,412.00 4,620,455.00 98,860,000.00 25,260,000,000.00 2,193,600,000,000.00 4,200,000,000,000.00
Gustav StresemannChancellor (1923-1929)Aimed to restore Germanys position in the world and hoped that cooperation would lead to fairer treatment of Germany and would speed up Germanys recovery.Aimed to build closer links with the USA, the USSR and France.
Locarno and the League of Nations
Dawes Plan 1925New reparations payment schedule that included a large loan to help stabilize Germanys economy
Locarno Pact 1925 (Germany, Britain, France, Belgium and Italy)Rejected the use of invasionSome thought this made Germany look even weaker!
League of Nations (1926)Germany joined the League and was recognized as a legitimate and stable power
Gustav StresemannChancellor (1923-1929)Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (1926)
However.No significant revision of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.Failed to achieve widespread support from the German population:Right wing opponents, including Nazis, argued the Locarno Pact made Germany look weak. Little German national pride.
National Socialist German Workers Party - Nazi
Anti- Marxist: not popular among the working class who were MarxistsAppealed to patriotic Germans who were not factory workers - shopkeepers, clerks, teacher, civil servants..
Germany, presidents, 1919-1923
1919-1925 Friedrich Ebert SPD
Germany, chancellors, 1919-1923
1919 1919-1920 1920 1920-1921 1921-1922 1922-1923 1923 Philipp Scheidemann Gustav Bauer Hermann Mueller Konstantin Fehrenbach Josef Wirth Wilhelm Cuno Gustav Stresemann SPD SPD SPD Zentrum Zentrum DVP
Hitlerthe appealTook advantage of chaotic conditionsAppealed to the young rather than the oldAddressed a people humiliated, disarmed, frightened, unemployedTold them the enemy were the Jews and the MarxistsAccused Jews of power when in fact they had none
"Youth Serves the Fhrer" is the title of this Hitler Youth recruiting poster. This organization mobilized boys into the Nazi community through sport and hiking, and later trained them for military combat.
German reaction to the Treaty of Versailles
Unrepresented at Peace conferenceNot allowed to keep any of their colonies Forced to accept terms - diktatAngry with military reductionsInjustice - War guilt, loss of land etcReparations - set too high (6.6 billion)
Beer Hall Putsch - 1923Hilters plan to overthrow the Weimar Republic by gaining the support of influencial men.
ie. Bavarian Prime Minister, Gustav von Kahr and retired general, Ludendorff.
Nov. 9, 1923
In Munich, staged a march with 3000 supporters to overthrow the November Criminals
Beer Hall Putsch failedHowever.Herman Gorring, Ernst Rohm, Rudolph Hess involved in the Putsch.Hitler & German Workers Party gained publicityHitler arrested - wrote Mein Kampf
NAZIS IDEOLOGYState based on:ARYANLEBENSRAUMFUEHRER PRINZIP
MACHTERGREIFUNG(SEIZURE OF POWER)From a marginal group of radical misfits in 1919 to Germanys single largest party in 1932Helped by deteriorating world economy in 1929Come to Power Jan. 30, 1933Gleichstaltung (synchronization)
How does an unknown with radical views become leader of Germany?
Reichstag Vote (Nazi Party)May 1928 2.6%Sept. 1930 18.3%July 1932 largest party.
HITLER COMES TO POWER
Jan. 1933 Hitler appointed Chancellor
Clemenceau, the Vampire
JANUARY 30, 1933
Georges, Grim Reaper, The Nation (April, 1933)
This painting by Arthur Kampf commemorates the Nazi seizure of power on 30 January 1933. There was a huge torch lit procession that evening in Berlin.Source: Die Kunst im Dritten Reich, January, 1938.
April 1935: Hi