The Holocaust. The Beginning Stages Vocabulary Anti-Semitism - Prejudices toward Jews or discrimination against them. Genocide - Deliberate, systematic

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> The Holocaust </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> The Beginning Stages </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Vocabulary Anti-Semitism - Prejudices toward Jews or discrimination against them. Genocide - Deliberate, systematic destruction of a racial, cultural, or political group. Scapegoat - Person or group of persons unfairly blamed for wrongs done by others. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Pre-War Approximately 11 million Jews in Europe Poland and the Soviet Union had the largest Jewish populations Jews very assimilated: farmers, factory workers, business people, doctors, teachers, and craftsmen Jewish community of Sighet, Romania in front of a wooden synagogue. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Germany blames Jews for Post WW1 problems Post WWI Blues Many Germans upset over the loss (Hurt Pride) Upset about Reparations German Army is limited in size Germany falls to extreme depression. Extremists blamed Jews for Germanys defeat in WWI Blamed the German Foreign Minister (a Jew) for his role in reaching a settlement with the Allies. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Anti-Semitism For 2,000 yrs Jews have suffered discrimination and used as scapegoats. people blamed Jews for the Black Death during Middle Ages Hitler idolized Austrian mayor (Karl Lueger) who used anti-Semitism in his political campaign. Political leaders who used anti-Semitism as a tool - portray Jews as a race instead of a religion. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Totalitarian State Totalitarianism is the total control of a country in the governments hands: It subjugates the individuals rights. It demonstrates a policy of aggression. In a totalitarian state, paranoia and fear dominate. The government maintains total control over the culture. The government is capable of indiscriminate killing. </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Why do you think Germany is a prime country for doing something like the Holocaust? Think of what you know about Germany and characteristics of a Totalitarian State </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Persecution April 1933 eliminated from civil service social security eliminated quotas in schools September 15, 1935 - Nazis passed Nuremberg Laws: Stripped Jews of their German citizenship. Prohibited from marrying or having sexual relations with persons of German or related blood. were required to carry ID cards </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Persecution The Jewish Question evolved in three steps: 1. Expulsion: Get them out of Europe 2. Containment: Confine in one place Ghettos 3. Final Solution: annihilation Other Groups Targeted: Gypsies (Sinti and Roma) Homosexuals Jehovahs Witness Handicapped Germans Poles Political Dissidents Helene Gotthold, a Jehovah's Witness, was beheaded for her religious beliefs on December 8, 1944, in Berlin. She is pictured with her children in 1936. </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Kristallnacht Night of the Broken Glass November 9- 10,1938 Anti-Jewish rampage in Germany: Burnings, arrests and beatings Nazis attacked synagogues, homes and businesses </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Anti-Semitism Propaganda Nazi teachers began to apply the principles of racial science by measuring skull size and nose length and recording students eye color and hair to determine whether students belonged to the Aryan race. The Nazis used propaganda to promote their anti-Semitic ideas. One such book was the childrens book, The Poisonous Mushroom. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> The Holocaust: The Final Solution Nazis would attempt to exterminate the entire Jewish population of Europe, an estimated 11 million persons. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Prelude to the Final Solution In 1939, Germany invaded Poland which had a much larger population of 3 million Jews. In 1941, Germany invaded Russia which had a population of 5 million Jews. </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Final Solution Himmler established specially trained SS units called Einsatzgruppen to shoot Jews. Attempted to kill Jews by having them dig their own graves and then stand in front of grave and be shot. Inefficient Too Long, Needed Bullets for war Wannsee Conference to determine a more effective way </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Einsatzgruppen </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Wannsee Conference On January, 20, 1942, headed by Himmler, head Nazis met in Berlin to coordinate the FINAL SOLUTION Used secret language in discussing plan "...eliminated by natural causes," refers to death by a combination of hard labor and starvation. "treated accordingly, "special treatment" and "special actions" refers to execution by SS firing squads or death by gassing </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Final Solution Jews to be rounded up, go through process of selection Healthy Jews Labor camps Death through over work and starvation Too Young, Too Old, Mothers of young, or unhealthy Death Camps </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Where were the Death Camps built? Why do you think that they located them here? The work of the Einsatzgruppen </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Children Dying of Starvation in the Warsaw Ghetto </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> SS Tactics: Dehumanisation The SS guards who murdered the Jews were brainwashed with Anti-Semitic propaganda. The Jews were transported in cattle cars in terrible conditions. Naked, dirty and half starved people look like animals, which helped to reinforce the Nazi propaganda. The SS used to train their new guards by encouraging them to set fire to a pit full of live victims usually children. </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Entrance to Auschwitz Notice how it has been built to resemble a railway station </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Auschwitz Orchestra </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Auschwitz from the air Notice how the Death camp is set out like a factory complex The Nazis used industrial methods to murder the Jews and process their dead bodies </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> The Gas Chambers The Nazis would force large groups of prisoners into small cement rooms and drop canisters of Zyklon B, or prussic acid, in its crystal form through small holes in the roof. These gas chambers were sometimes disguised as showers or bathing houses. The SS would try and pack up to 2000 people into this gas chamber </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> The outside of the Gas Chamber Notice the Ovens easily located near the Gas Chambers </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Processing the bodies Specially selected Jews known as the sonderkommando were used to to remove the gold fillings and hair of people who had been gassed. The Sonderkommando Jews were also forced to feed the dead bodies into the crematorium. </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> The Ovens at Dachau </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Dead bodies waiting to be processed </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Shoes waiting to be processed by the sonderkommando Taken inside a huge glass case in the Auschwitz Museum. This represents one day's collection at the peak of the gassings, about twenty five thousand pairs. </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Destruction Through Work This photo was taken by the Nazis to show just how you could quite literally work the fat of the Jews by feeding them 200 calories a day </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Destruction Through Work Same group of Jews 6 weeks later </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Was the Final Solution successful? The Nazis aimed to kill 11 million Jews Today there are only 2000 Jews living in Poland. The Nazis managed to kill at least 6 million Jews. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> The Holocaust To What Extent did the World Know? </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Evil is when a few good men decide to do nothing. </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> U.S. and World Response Evian Conference - summer of 1938 in Evian, France. 32 countries met to discuss what to do about the Jewish refugees who were trying to leave Germany and Austria. Despite voicing feelings of sympathy, most countries made excuses for not accepting more refugees. Some US congressmen proposed the Wagner-Rogers Bill let 20,000 endangered Jewish refugee children into the country bill was not supported in the Senate. Anti-Semitic attitudes played a role in the failure to help refugees. The SS St. Louis, carrying refugees with Cuban visas, were denied admittance both in Cuba and in Florida. After being turned back to Europe, most of the passengers perished in the Holocaust. </li> </ul>