Holocaust Lecture #1- The Jews of Germany. Part I. Pre 19 th Century Anti-Semitism The term ‘anti-Semitism’ Jews in Europe –Recap of their difficult position.
Post on 13-Jan-2016
Holocaust Lecture #1- The Jews of GermanyPart I. Pre 19th Century Anti-Semitism The term anti-SemitismJews in EuropeRecap of their difficult position DiasporaApartness (covenant with God) Education and money lending Christ-killers Kicked out of countries periodically throughout European history Part II. The 19th Century New Developments in this century created new challenges for Europes JewsSocial Darwinism gave a new justification for racial superiority Nationalism -Nations rather than kingdomsKingdoms a political entity is made up of all subjects, no matter what ethnicity they are Nations a political entity is made up of people of a common culture and ethnicity Do we see why this is important? Now Jews have no political place in society! Ironically, many Jewish-Germans felt highly assimilated had deep roots (centuries long) in Germany Had done relatively well pre-WWI compared to Jews in other European countries Why are these dates significant? Germans felt duped at the end of World War I and by the Treaty of Versailles Why? Sudden and suprising collapse of the German war effort! Some Jews in Weimar govt Right wing Germans (Hitler, Ludendorff) wondered Did the Jews care less about winning because they werent real Germans? Similar to what happened to the Armenians (a minority group living under the Ottoman Turks in WWI -see pics on next two slide) Hitlers radicalizationMoved to Vienna (from a small town) as a young man and encountered Jews for the first time Vienna at the time had an outspokenly anti-Semitic mayor Part of the Jewish faith is to remain a people with a special covenant with God apartness in diet, traditions, and customs This visibility made them easy targets for bigots Part III. 1919 to 1933Our strength consists in our speed and in our brutality. Genghis Khan led millions of women and children to slaughter -- with premeditation and a happy heart. History sees in him solely the founder of a state. Its a matter of indifference to me what a weak western European civilisation will say about me. I have issued the command -- and Ill have anybody who utters but one word of criticism executed by a firing squad -- that our war aim does not consist in reaching certain lines, but in the physical destruction of the enemy. Accordingly, I have placed my death-head formation in readiness -- for the present only in the East -- with orders to them to send to death mercilessly and without compassion, men, women, and children of Polish derivation and language. Only thus shall we gain the living space [Lebensraum] which we need. Who, after all, speaks to-day of the annihilation of the Armenians?Whos quote??? Hitlers Racial Aryan PurityLiked to reference Sparta as a society that achieved great strength because it destroyed weaklings which gave the strong space to thrive Nazi Racial Ideology (from Wikipedia) IdeologyRosenberg argued that the Nordic race had evolved in a now-lost landmass, Atlantis, off the coast of North Western Europe, and had migrated through Scandinavia and northern Europe, expanding further south, and as far as Iran and India where it founded the Aryan cultures of Zoroastrianism and Hinduism. He argued that the entrepreneurial energy of the Nordics had "degenerated" when they mixed with "inferior" peoples.With the rise of Hitler, Nordic theory became the norm within German culture. In some cases the "Nordic" concept became an almost abstract ideal rather than a mere racial category. Hermann Gauch wrote in 1933 that the fact that "birds can be taught to talk better than other animals is explained by the fact that their mouths are Nordic in structure." He further claimed that in humans, "the shape of the Nordic gum allows a superior movement of the tongue, which is the reason why Nordic talking and singing are richer.Bolshevik (Communist) Revolution in Russia in 1917 confirmed the international Jewish plot to take over the world Marx and Lenin were Jews Ironically, Marx and Lenin were secular Jews Communism refutation of nationalism According to Communist ideology, people are bound by their class, not their ethnicity To racial zealots (see- Hitler) this is a Jewish plot to preserve their own inferior breed and dilute the pure racesBad economic times in Germany that followed WWI, and then in the Great Depression, increased a need for scapegoats anger at Jews who were relatively wealthy (bankers, doctors, lawyers) Hitler comes to powerHad downplayed his anti-Semitism once he had decided to try to win election (after Beer Hall Putsch), but Mein Kampf and Hitlers basic genocidal ideas were still out there Ironies in Hitlers anti-Semitic Stanceforeign Jews had been in Germany for 1000 years His mothers life had been saved by a Jewish doctorHitler promised to never forgetHitlers own family tree is murky many have speculated that he is part JewishHe was awarded a medal for bravery in WWI by a Jewish officerJews fought in WWI in numbers that were higher than their % in the population (why important?) Part IV. Hitler in Power the Start of WWII Hitlers decided to purify the Aryan race First group killed? Handicapped (T4 Program) Early experiments with killing efficiency gas in showers, gas vans, (shooting is too messy, inefficient, and expensive) Construction of concentration camps, originally for political prisoners Hitlers regime placed a blanket of censorship over GermanyAllowed mass exterminations Nuremberg Laws Jews lose citizenshipThus, afterwards, all persecution is legal Banned from certain professionsmiscegenation laws ghetto-ization wearing badges kicked out of school Efficient, scientific Nazi model of racial categorization KristallnachtResponse to assassination of a German diplomat by a Jew in FranceDual meaning of the name shattered glass v night of brilliant clarity 30,000 Jewish were taken to concentration campsAround 1,668 synagogues were ransacked, and 267 set on fire. The Times of London wrote at the time: "No foreign propagandist bent upon blackening Germany before the world could outdo the tale of burnings and beatings, of blackguardly assaults on defenceless and innocent people, which disgraced that country yesterday." V. American Reaction to Germanys Treatment of Jews Halt to Jewish ImmigrationAs a result of massive European immigration between 1850 and the 1920s, and because of the high unemployment caused by the Great Depression, Jews (along with other Eastern Europeans) were forbidden to immigrate to the U.S. in the 1930sBy this time, about 3% of the American population were Jewish American anti-Semitism religiously biased acceptance to university programs barriers to entry in certain professions The KKK, which had formed to keep emancipated blacks in their place also aimed their attentions at JewsAmerican attitudes towards Jews (from Wikipedia)United States national public opinion polls taken from the mid nineteen thirties to the late nineteen forties showed that over half the American population saw Jews as greedy and dishonest. Americans believed that Jews were too powerful in the United States 35-40 percent of the population was prepared to accept an anti-Jewish campaign.In one 1938 poll, 41 percent of respondents agreed that Jews had "too much power in the United States," and this figure rose to 58 percent by 1945. In 1939 a poll found that only thirty-nine percent of Americans felt that Jews should be treated like other people. Fifty-three percent believed that "Jews are different and should be restricted" and ten percent believed that Jews should be deported. Several surveys taken from 1940 to 1946 found that Jews were seen as a greater threat to the welfare of the United States than any other national, religious, or racial group.Although only 0.6 percent of the nation's 93,000 commercial bankers in 1939 were Jewish, the idea that Jews controlled the banking system remained a popular myth. Thus, anti-Semitism was fairly widespread in the U.S, a sentiment which reduced the inclination of Americans to help the Jews in Europe.HansenName _______________WWII Period _____ Holocaust Lecture #1- The Jews of GermanyPart I. Pre 19th Century Anti-Semitism The term anti-Semitism _____________________ _________________________________________Jews in EuropeRecap of their difficult position Diaspora __________________________________ _________________________________________ Apartness (covenant with God) _______________ _________________________________________ Education and money lending ________________ _________________________________________ Christ-killers ______________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________________Part II. The 19th Century _______________________ in this century created new challenges for Europes JewsSocial Darwinism gave a new _______________________ Nationalism -Nations rather than _____________________Kingdoms a political entity is made up of ___________, no matter what _______________ they are Nations a political entity is made up of _______________ ________________________________________Do we see why this is important? Now Jews have no ________ ________________ in society! Ironically, many Jewish-Germans felt highly ________________ had deep roots (___________________) in Germany Had done relatively well pre-WWI compared to Jews in _____________________________________________Part III. 1919 to 1933Why are these dates significant? ____________________________Germans felt ____________at the end of World War I and by the Treaty of Versailles Why? ______________________________ of the German war effort! Some Jews in __________________________ Right wing Germans (Hitler, Ludendorff) wondered Did the Jews ______________________________________because they werent real Germans? Similar to what happened to the __________ (a minority group living under the ______________ in WWIHitlers ______________________Moved to ___________ (from a small town) as a young man and encountered _____________________________Vienna at the time had an outspokenly _____________________Part of the Jewish faith is to remain a people with a special covenant with God ___________ in diet, traditions, and customs This visibility made them __________________for bigots Hitlers Racial _______________________Liked to reference ____________ as a society that achieved great strength because it _________________________ which gave the strong space to thrive Bolshevik (Communist) Revolution in Russia in 1917 ___________ ________________________________________________________________________________ were Jews Ironically, __________________ were ________ Jews Communism is refutation of nationalism According to Communist ideology, people are bound by their _________, not their ______________ To racial zealots (see- Hitler) this is a Jewish plot to preserve their own ____________________ and dilute the ________________Bad economic times in Germany that followed WWI, and then in the ____________________, increased a need for _______________anger at Jews who were ___________________________ (bankers, doctors, lawyers) Hitler comes to powerHad downplayed his anti-Semitism once he had decided to try to __________________ (after Beer Hall Putsch), but Mein Kampf and Hitlers _____________________________were still out there Ironies in Hitlers Anti-Semitic Stance foreign Jews had been in Germany for ________________ His mothers life had been saved by a ___________________Hitler promised to _______________________Hitlers own _______________________________ many have speculated that he is part JewishHe was awarded a ________________ in WWI by a Jewish officerJews fought in WWI in numbers that were ___________________ ___________ in the population (why important?)- ______________ ___________________________________________ Part IV. Hitler in Power the Start of WWIIHitlers decided to _____________________ First group killed? _____________________________________Early experiments with killing ________________ gas in showers, gas vans, (shooting _________________ _____________________________________) Construction of concentration camps, originally for ___________________________________Hitlers regime placed a blanket of censorship over Germany____________________________________________________________________Jews lose citizenshipThus, afterwards, all persecution is ___________Banned from certain ________________miscegenation laws - ___________________________________________________wearing ______________________kicked out of school Efficient, scientific Nazi model of ________________________V. American Reaction to Germanys Treatment of JewsHalt to Jewish _______________________As a result of massive European immigration between 1850 and the 1920s, and because of the high __________________- caused by the Great Depression, Jews (along with other Eastern Europeans) were _____________________________________ to the U.S. in the 1930sBy this time, _______________ of the American population were Jewish American anti-Semitism religiously biased acceptance to _________________programs barriers to entry in certain _______________The KKK, which had formed to keep emancipated _________ in their place also __________________________ at Jews
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