The Holocaust. Terms and People Holocaust − name now used to describe the systematic murder by the Nazis of Jews and others anti-Semitism − prejudice.

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Slide 1 The Holocaust Slide 2 Terms and People Holocaust name now used to describe the systematic murder by the Nazis of Jews and others anti-Semitism prejudice and discrimination against Jewish people Nuremberg Laws laws enacted by Hitler that denied German citizenship to Jews Kristallnacht November 9, 1938 night of organized violence in which Jews were arrested and killed and synagogues and Jewish businesses destroyed Slide 3 genocide willful annihilation of a racial, political, or cultural group concentration camp camps used by the Nazis to imprison undesirable members of society death camp Nazi camp designed for the extermination of prisoners War Refugee Board U.S. government agency founded in 1944 to save Eastern European Jews Terms and People (continued) Slide 4 Roots of the Holocaust Racist belief that proclaimed Aryans superior to other people Desire by Hitler and others to blame someone for Germanys problems following World War I Hitler found someone to blame: the Jews. The Nazi movement trafficked in hatred and anti-Semitism. Slide 5 Jewish businesses were boycotted. Jews were fired from their jobs. Jews were barred from working in fields such as banking, law, and medicine. At first, the focus of persecution was economic. Slide 6 In time, laws were passed that broadened the persecution. Nuremberg Laws, passed in 1935 Denied Jews German citizenship Banned marriage between Jews and non-Jews Segregated Jews at every level of society Slide 7 Slide 8 The hatred directed against Jews soon turned violent. On November 9-10 1938 night known as Kristallnacht, hundreds of Jews were killed and Jewish businesses and synagogues burned. Hitlers secret police carried out vicious attacks. Slide 9 Killing Squads and Ghettos In 1938 Hitler began his Final Solution Nazi death squads rounded up Jews in Poland and shot all Jews on the spot. Jews were also rounded up and place in ghettos. These towns were sealed off with barbed wire. Slide 10 Slide 11 Slide 12 Pawia Street is bustling with a small portion of the approximately 450,000 people that lived in the Warsaw ghetto in early 1941. At this time, the ghetto contained about 840 acres, of which 760 acres were habitable. About 37% of the Greater Warsaw population was squeezed into 4.6% of the area of the city. Slide 13 Political opponents and anyone labeled undesirable also were imprisoned. Hitlers final solution to the Jewish question was genocide extermination of all Jews. Beginning in the 1930s, Jews were forced from their homes, put onto trains, and taken to concentration camps. Slide 14 Some concentration camps were death camps. There, prisoners were killed in gas chambers or shot, and their bodies burned. Slide 15 Prisoners in other camps were forced to perform heavy labor, often brutalized by the guards. Some were tortured or subjected to horrible medical experiments. Death by starvation and disease was common. Millions of people died in concentration camps. Slide 16 A 1943 conference to discuss possible rescue plans ended with no concrete action being taken. The United States and other countries blocked fleeing Jews from immigrating. For years, the Allies had received reports of Jews being killed in Nazi camps. Yet little was done to stop it. Slide 17 Though they expressed concern, American leaders remained focused on their war plans. Some suggested they bomb the rail lines leading to the camps. But the military hesitated to divert battle resources. In 1944, Roosevelt created the War Refugee Board in an attempt to help Jews in Eastern Europe. Sadly, too few were saved. Slide 18 When Allied soldiers liberated the camps at wars end, they were stunned by the horror before them. Americans reacted with an outpouring of sympathy and a desire to help. Many survivors eventually found homes in the United States. Slide 19 Slide 20 Slide 21 Slide 22 Slide 23 Slide 24 Slide 25 Slide 26 Slide 27 Slide 28 Slide 29 Slide 30 Slide 31 Slide 32 Slide 33 Slide 34 Slide 35 The state of Israel was founded in 1948. Truman immediately recognized the new nation, and the United States became a staunch ally. The enormity of the Nazi crime led to renewed calls for an independent Jewish state.

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