chapter 24 nationalism. italian unification nationalism: desire for national independence ...
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Italian UnificationNationalism: desire for national independence1815: Italian Peninsula was divided into several independent city-states w/ various governmentsLanguage and trade barriers prevented unityMazzini and Young Italy: sought to transform Italy into a sovereign nation-stateBegan forcing out Austrian influencePope Pius IX withdrew; other city-states followedCount Cavour (advisor in Sardinia):Gained French support by joining the Crimean WarNapoleon III helped force Austrians out of Italy
Garibaldi (military leader in Sicily):1830: forced into exile went to S. AmericaLearned to use guerilla warfare (hit and run tactics)1860: returned to Sicily and gained controlSurrendered to Cavour 1861: Italy was one nation with the exception of Rome & Venetia (Victor Emmanuel II)1871: Victor Emmanuel II moved the capital from Florence to Rome creating complete unity
German UnificationLast great European nation to unify1815: 39 German States - 1871: 1 German nation1834 a Zollverein (economic union) was formedStruggle for power between Austria and PrussiaPrussia = most dominate German state (econ. & mil.)Otto von Bismarck was dominate prime minister
Three Wars:War against Denmark: Germans forced Danes out of controversial territories (Schleswig & Holstein) Seven Weeks War: Bismarck declared war on Austria defeated them in seven weeksFranco-Prussian War: Bismarck doctored a telegram from Prussias King to Napoleon IIIFormation of an Empire:Jan. 18, 1871 William I became KaiserBismarck became chancellor (chief minister)25 German states combined to form a new nation
Bismarcks RealmConcerns:The Center Party (Catholic German political party)1870: Doctrine of papal infallibility May Laws, limited Catholic power in GermanyPope Pius IX broke diplomatic ties w/ BismarckBismarck tried to make peace (in his losing battle)Industrial GrowthDeep pit Coal Mining offered abundant cheap fuelRapid urbanization (rural farmers moved to cities)
Workers and Socialism:Ferdinand Lassalle (Univ. German Workers Assoc.)Advocated political action to bring change1875: UGWA merged with the Social Dem. PartyBismarck and the Socialists:1878: Legislature passed Anti-Socialist Bill banned all Socialist meetings and publicationsTried to gain workers support with State Health Aid1890: Socialist Dem. Party gained a majority in the legislatureThe Fall of Bismarck:1890: upset w/ the new king, Bismarck offered his resignation which was readily accepted by William II
Russias EmpireAutocracy: govt. in which one person rules with absolute authorityRussian Czars:Alexander I: granted a constitution to Poland, then lost interest in social/political improvementNicholas I: gave secret police unlimited powerAlexander II: emancipated serfs to industrializeTerror and Reaction:Michael Bakunin advocated anarchy (no govt.)Nihilists: rejected all Russian traditions1881: Alexander II was assassinatedAlexander III: promoted Russification (policy of intolerance and persecution of non-Russians)
Revolution of 1905:Nicholas II declared himself an autocratWas easily influenced by his wifeRussian Marxists:Mensheviks: develop an industrial state with a large working class in order to revoltBolsheviks (Lenin): small party of professional revolutionaries could use force to gain reformMore Upheaval:Jan. 22, 1905: soldiers opened fire on 200,000 peaceful protestors in St. PetersburgNicholas II allowed for a duma (legislature)October Manifesto: made Soviet Union a const. mon.
Crime is a product of social excess. Give us the child for 8 years and it will be a Bolshevik forever.
It is true that liberty is precious; so precious that it must be carefully rationed.
No amount of political freedom will satisfy the hungry masses.
One man with a gun can control 100 without one.
Without revolutionary theory there can be no revolutionary movement.
Austria-Hungarys DeclineLacked political/geographic unityRevolution of 1848:Metternich opposed/crushed rev. activityFrances Rev. of 1848 spread to Austria; fostered ideas of nationalism and freedomsLost influence over Italian & German provinces under Francis Joseph (conservative king)Dual Monarchy (The Ausgleich):1867: divided Austria-Hungary into separate empiresShared a monarch, but had different const./parl.Austria (industrial); Hungary (agricultural)
Powder Keg in the Balkans1875: nationalists in Serbia, Bulgaria, & Romania demanded independence from TurkeyThe Congress of Berlin (1877): Russia went to war on behalf of the Slavic peoplesThe Treaty of Stefano (1878): created a large, Russian controlled Bulgarian stateLed to jingoism (extreme patriotism)Balkan Conflict:Balkan states began to fight amongst themselvesEuropean nations allied with small nations to help give aid
CHAPTER 25The Age of Imperialism
The Russian Empire in DeclineRussia a massive, multi-cultural empireOnly approximately half speak Russian, observe Russian Orthodox ChristianityRomanov Tsars rule autocratic empirePowerful class of nobles exempt from taxation, military dutyExploitative serfdom
The Russian empire, 1801-1914
The Crimean War, 1853-1856Russian expansion into Caucasus in larger attempt to establish control over weakening Ottoman empireThreatens to upset balance of power, Europeans become involvedRussia driven back from Crimea in humiliating defeatDemonstration of Russian weakness in the face of western technology, strategy
Russian IndustrializationAlexander II emancipates the serfs (1861)Does not alleviate poverty/hungerPeasants uprooted from rural lifestyle to work for low wage jobsConstruction of Trans-Siberian RailroadSocialist and anarchist propaganda spread rampantlyPeoples Will Movement assassinates Alexander IIPogroms begin against Eastern European Jews
Revolution of 1905Humiliating defeat of Nicholas II and Russians in the Russo-Japanese War exposes government weaknessesGrowing Social Discontent boils over in growing Marxist movementsRussian soldiers open fire on protestors sparking panic and threatened revolt by the massesNicholas II allows for representative government (Duma)October Manifesto is issued
Western Trade in ChinaChina had restricted the majority of Western trade since the 1750s The only allowed currency was silver bullionBritish East India Company began to trade (smuggle) opium from India into ChinaBy the 1830s, the Chinese began enforce the ban and the British engaged in military action.Opium War ends with the Unequal Treaties ceding Hong Kong to Britain.
Taiping RebellionPopulation growth of 50%; cultivated land remains stagnateCall for the destruction of Qing DynastyTaiping Platform led by Hong XiuquanAbolition of private propertyCreation of communal wealthProhibition of footbinding, concubinageFree public education, simplification of written Chinese, mass literacyProhibition of sexual relations among followers (including married couples)In the end Hong commits suicide and 100,000 Taipings killed
The Self-Strengthening Movement (1860-95)High point in 1860s-1870sSlogan Chinese learning at the base, Western learning for useBlend of Chinese cultural traditions with European industrial technologyShipyards, railroads, academiesChange to Chinese economy and society superficialStrong influence from Confucian scholars and leaders proves to strong for the movement to succeed.
The Boxer RebellionSociety of Righteous and Harmonious Fists (Boxers), anti-foreign militia units1899 fight to rid China of foreign devilsMisled to believe European weapons would not harm them, 140,000 Boxers besiege European embassies in 1900Crushed by coalition of European forcesChina forced to accept stationing of foreign troops
Foreign Pressure in JapanEuropeans, Americans attempting to establish relationsU.S. in particular look for Pacific ports merchantsJapan only allowed Dutch presence in Nagasaki1853 Matthew Perry sails gunship up to Edo (Tokyo), forces Japanese to open portSparks conservative Japanese reaction against Shogun, rally around Emperor in Kyoto leading to Meiji RestorationMeiji Restoration allows for western learningEstablishment of Constitutional Government
The Idea of ImperialismTerm dates from mid-19th c.In popular discourse by 1880sMilitary imperialismLater, economic & cultural varietiesUS imperialism
Motivation for ImperialismMilitaryPoliticalEconomicEuropean capitalismReligiousDemographiccriminal populationsDissident populations
Manifest DestinyDiscovery of natural resourcesExploitation of cheap laborExpansion of markets
The White Mans BurdenRudyard Kipling (1864-1936)Raised in India, native Hindi speakerBoarding school in England, then return to India (1882)French: mission civilisatrice
Geopolitical ConsiderationsStrategic footholdsWaterwaysSupply stationsImperial rivalries
Domestic Political ConsiderationsCrises of industrialismPressure from nascent SocialismImperial policies distract proletariat from domestic politicsCecil Rhodes: imperialism alternative to civil war
Technology and ImperialismTransportationSteamshipsRailroadsInfrastructureSuez Canal (1859-1869)Panama Canal (1904-1914)
Weaponrymuzzle-loading musketsMid-century: breech-loading riflesReduce reloading time1880s: Maxim gun, 11 rounds per second
The Military AdvantageBattle of Omdurman (near Khartom on Nile), 1898Five hours of fightingBritish: six gunboats, twenty machine guns, 368 killedSudanese: 11,000 killed
CommunicationsCorrespondence1830 Britain-India: 2 yearsAfter Suez Canal, 2 weeksTelegraph1870s, development of submarine cabl