i. nationalism & the unification of germany & italy

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  • I. Nationalism & the Unification of Germany & Italy

  • B. Nationalism & LiberalismUntil 1860s: nationalism associated w/ liberalism

    After Social Revolutions of 1848 conservative political leaders built national identity through:

    public educationuniversal military servicecolonial conquests

  • A. Nationalism before 18711.Language usually created national unity, but

    language & citizenship rarely coincidedredraw boundaries of states to accommodate culture?

  • C. The Unification of Italy (18601870)By mid-19th c.: popular sentiment for unification

    opposed by Pope & Austria

    Austrians pushed out of n. Italy

  • united Kingdom of Italy (1860):

    headed by Victor Emmanuel

  • D. The Unification of Germany

  • German UnificationUntil 1860s German-speaking people split into:

    39 smaller stateswestern half of Austrian Empire Prussia

    2.Prussia took lead in German unity movement:

    had a strong industrial base modern army equipped latest military technology

  • E. Otto von BismarckDuring reign of Kaiser Wilhelm I (r. 186188), Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck achieved final unification of Germany through:

    Diplomacy (Realpolitik)Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria, ItalyWilhelm I

  • When Wilhelm I of Prussia became Kaiser of Germany...

    the Second Reich began.

  • Bismarcks Eisen und Blut (Iron & Blood)

  • F. Nationalism after 1871After Franco-Prussian War: all politicians manipulated public opinion to bolster their governments

    Used the press & public education in order to foster nationalistic loyalties

    Nationalism used to justify imposition of majority language, religion, or customs

    Russians Russify its diverse ethnic populations

  • Describe the role of nationalism (both liberal & conservative) in the creation of Germany before & after 1871.#1. Thesis Writing Exercise

  • G. Justification of Imperial Conquest1. Herbert Spencer (18201903) took up Charles Darwins ideas of natural selection:

    - applied to human societies- Social Darwinism- justified European conquest as survival of the fittest

  • II. The Great Powers of Europe, 18711900

  • A. Germany at the Center of EuropeUnder Bismarck, international relations revolved around Germany isolating France

    Domestically, Germany used populism to:

    gain popular support develop a strong sense of national unityKaiser Wilhelm II (r. 18881918) placed emphasis on acquiring colonies

  • The Liberal PowersFrance: now a 2nd-rate power in Europeslower rate of industrialization

    Great Britain:

    stable governmentenormously expensive empire Eastern Problem of Ottomansignored Germany while preoccupied w/ Russia

  • C. Problems in RussiaEthnic diversity in Russia:

    spread of Russian nationalism & language divisiveriots targeting Jews: pogroms

    Tsar Alexander II (1861) emancipated serfsbut serfs turned into communal farmers

    Russian loss in Russo-Japanese War (19041905)

  • a constitution & parliament (Duma)

  • If the German, British, & French peoples were strengthened by the forces of nationalism, why did nationalism weaken Russia & Austria-Hungary?#2. Thesis Writing Exercise

  • II. New Technologies & the World Economy

  • A. Railroads1850-1900 railroads in:

    Britain FranceGermany CanadaRussia JapanUnited States

  • B. SteamshipsTechnological developments increased size & speed of ocean-going vessels:

    use of iron & steel for hullspropellersefficient engines

  • C. Telegraph Cablessystem of submarine telegraph cables developed

  • D. Steel

    inventions 18th-19th C. allowed production of large quantities of steel at low costIllinois Steel Works in Joliet

  • Blue Steel

  • E. The Chemical Industry1800s brought large-scale manufacture of:

    chemicalssynthetic dyesPLASTICS!

    2.Germany: govt-funded research & universities working w/ industries

    German chemical & explosives industries most advanced

  • F. ElectricityElectricity used to power:

    lamps, streetcars, subways, electric motors created huge demand for copper

  • G. World Trade & Freight1850-1913:

    world trade expanded x10cost of freight dropped 50-95%

    Growth of trade between industrial economies:Western Europe & N. America prospered

  • H. Non-Industrial AreasUndeveloped regions:

    dependant on the export of raw materials

    2. Until WW I, exports from tropical regions high...

  • #1. Thesis Writing ExerciseWhat types of technologies changed over time, allowing European powers to build global empires?

  • II. Population Changes

  • A. Population & Migration1850-1914: European population explosion

    Emigration from Europe to:

    U.S. CanadaAustralia New ZealandArgentina

    3. European descent in world: 1/5 to 1/3

  • Total # of Emigrants 1820-1920

    Country of EmigrantsTotal #Germany5,500,000Ireland4,400,000Italy4,190,000Russia3,250,000England1,500,000

  • 1820-18791880-1919

  • B. Why the increase?

    decrease in death rateimproved crop yieldsgrain from N. Americayear-round diet from canning & refrigerationurbanization

  • #2. Thesis Writing ExerciseWhat were the leading causes of population growth during the late 1800s?

  • III. Middle-Class WomenThe Separate Sphere

  • A. The Victorian Age1. during reign of Queen Victoria (18371901): ideology of family structure rules of behavior between men & women

    men & women thought to belong in separate spheres:

    men in workplace, women at home

  • Queen Victoria

  • A womans work is never donepre-electrical appliances: middle-class home demanded lots of work

    19th-c. tech: eliminated some tasks

    primary duty: childbearing & raise a family

    3.Gender discrimination: women excluded from most jobs lack of opportunities pushed many women to volunteer activities or join the suffrage movement

  • #3. Thesis Writing ExerciseDescribe some of the changes and continuities experienced by women during the 1800s.

  • IV. Socialism & Labor Movements

  • A. Socialism1. Intellectual movement started by:

    Karl Marx (181883) & Friedrich Engels (182095) both wrote the Communist Manifesto (1848)Karl Marx

  • The Ideas of MarxMarx saw history as a social class war between

    capitalists (bourgeoisie) & workers (proletariat)

  • TODAYChina, Cuba, Laos, Vietnam, & North Korea

  • #4. Thesis Writing ExerciseWhat were some of the social and economic conditions during the 1800s that led to the rise of Socialism & Communism?

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