nationalism germany and italy i can explain the unification of germany and italy

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Nationalism Germany and Italy

Nationalism Germany and ItalyI can explain the unification of Germany and ItalyWhat impact does Napoleon have in Europe?Napoleonic Wars: 1799-1815He conquers much of EuropeDeposing leaders, changing boundariesHe changes the nature of warNew technologiesNew strategies: blockades, waging war on civilians

Why does Nationalism develop after Napoleon?NationalIsm

Definition:What are the benefits of a country displaying nationalism?What are the drawbacks of a country displaying nationalism?Congress of Vienna1814-1815Purpose: to rebuild Europe after NapoleonGreat Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia and France all sent diplomatsPrince Klemens von MetternichFrom Austria; wanted 3 major goals completed:Containment of FranceBalance of PowerLegitimacy (restoring rulers Napoleon dethroned)

RESULTS:The Congress of ViennaCreated a group of 39 German StatesReturned many French conquered countries back to powerDiminished some of Frances power (but not too much!!)Returned dethroned rulers to powerCreated a balance of power and brought a temporary peace to EuropeEurope 1812

Europe 1815

CONSERVATISMA return to ways of the past---monarchies, royal familiesA social hierarchyAn established churchSLOW changesFear of revolutionsOpposed freedom of press and protestsLIBERALISMMore supportive of revolutionsWanted constitutions based on separation of powerNo monarchiesLife, liberty, propertyPolitical rights for male property ownersA middle class movementCrash Course this one: is happy?Who might not be so happy?What potential issues could arise from this? 1800s no unified GermanyGerman-speaking people lived in Prussia and other states (Bavaria, Saxony, etc)Germanic people had been around since the times of the RomansNapoleons raids had spurred German nationalism and contempt for FrenchOtto von Bismarck The Iron Chancellor prime minister of the Prussian monarchy.Master of RealpolitikRealistic policies based on the needs of the state; power is more important than principles; diplomacy would never unite Germany

Otto von Bismarck

BismarckPulled away from Austria, which had historically ruled the German statesBegan process of German unificationBuilt up Prussian armyAnnexed smaller, weaker German statesStarted the Franco-Prussian War.Why would he start a war?He knew other German states would unify against France (Germans hated France since Napoleon)Franco-Prussian War1870Started over a disagreement about an heir to the Spanish throne.He edited a telegram sent to him by the Prussian king, William.Made it look like King Will insulted France. Made Napoleon III furious. He declares war.Prussia beats France in 6 weeksHow? Modern technology (telegraphs, railroads, breech-loading weapons)Franco-Prussian WarHumiliating for the FrenchVery quick defeatForced to pay Prussia to leaveLose 2 border provinces: Alsace and Lorraine

The huge Prussian victory led to the crowning of Will I as Kaiser William I (emperor)1871 Germany becomes a unified nation

ITALYHad not been a unified nation since the days of the Roman Empire People there spoke common language (Italian) but lived in several city-states ruled by Austria and other foreign powers.Reasons some wanted unification:Made economic sense (remove tariffs)Common language, history, cultureNationalist Leaders

Giuseppe Mazzini

Count Camillo Cavour

Victor Emmanuel II

Giuseppe GaribaldiItalyMazzini-founded Young Italy in the 1830sA secret societyOrganized a revolution, but it failed. He was exiled. Important: planted seeds of nationalismCavour-became Prime Minister of SardiniaKing-Victor Emmanuel IICavour was a crafty politician like BismarckSecret alliance with France; provoked war with Austria. Won and annexed some Italian states.

Garibaldi and the Red ShirtsGaribaldi longtime nationalist recruited 1,000 red-shirted volunteers.Invaded Sicily and conquered north to NaplesVery patriotic, turned over his control to Victor Emmanuel.By 1870, all of Italy was unified.

CRITICAL CONNECTIONSIn what ways can the nationalist movements of the 1800s be traced back to Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna?How does Frances humiliation in the Franco-Prussian war contribute to future conflict?


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