unification of italy and germany unification of italy and germany chapter 8 section 3
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Unification of Italy and GermanyChapter 8 Section 3
Cavour Unites ItalyNationalism did not only destroy empires, it helped build nations.Italy formed from crumbling empires.1815-1848 fewer Italians were content to live under foreign rulers.
Cavour Leads Italian UnificationItalian nationalists looked for leadership from the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, the largest and most powerful of the Italian states.Kingdom adopted a liberal constitution in 1848.Unification sounded like a good plan to the liberal middle-class.
Count Camillo di CavourBecame Prime Minister of Sardinia in 1852.Worked tirelessly to expand Piedmont-Sardinias power.Wanted to gain control of northern Italy.
Roadblock to ItalyCavour realized that Austria would cause a major roadblock.Napoleon III agreed to help drive Austria out of the northern Italian provinces.Cavour then started a war with Austria.With the help of the French, Sardinia won two quick victories.Sardinia took all of northern Italy, except Venetia.
Garibaldi Brings UnityWhile Cavour was uniting northern Italy, he secretly helped nationalist rebels in the south.May 1860 a small army of Italian nationalists captured Sicily.Army was known as the Red Shirts.Leader Giuseppe Garibaldi, and his followers, always wore a bright red shirt in battle.
GaribaldiGaribaldi and his soldiers marched north from Sicily.Garibaldi agreed to unite southern areas with the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia.Garibaldi met with King Victor Emmanuel II. Garibaldi agreed to step aside and let the King rule.
Final Additions1860 Venetia became part of Italy.1870 Papal States came under Italian control.This included the city of Rome.Rome became the capital of Italy.The pope would continue to govern a section of Rome known as Vatican City.
Bismarck Unites GermanyLike Italy, Germany also achieved national unity in the mid-1800s.1815 39 German states formed a loose grouping called the German Confederation.The Austrian Empire dominated the confederation.However, Prussia was ready to unify all the German States.
Prussia Leads German UnificationPrussia had several advantages:Prussia had a large German populationUnlike the Austro-Hungarian EmpireNationalism unified Prussia and tore Austria-Hungary apart.Prussias army was the most powerful in central Europe.Berlin rioters forced a constitutional convention to write up a liberal constitution for the kingdom, paving the way for unification.
Bismarck Takes Control1862 Wilhelm I succeeded Frederick William to the throne.Liberal parliament refused him money for reforms that would double the strength of his army.Major challenge to Wilhelms authority.Based on this information, do you think Wilhelm was a liberal or a conservative?
Junkers & BismarckJunkers supported his view.Junkers = strongly conservative members of Prussias wealthy landowning class.1862 Wilhelm chose a conservative Junker to be his Prime MinisterOtto von Bismarck
RealpolitikBismarck became a master at realpolitik.Means the politics of unity.Used to describe tough power politics with no room for idealism.
It is not by means of speeches and majority resolutions that the great issues of the day will be decided but by blood and iron.
Dealing with ParliamentBismarck declared that he would rule without:Consent of parliamentLegal budgetThese actions were in direct violation of the constitution.
Prussia Expands1864 Bismarck took the first step toward molding an empire.Prussia and Austria formed an alliance.Went to war against Denmark to win two border provinces: Schleswig (P) and Holstein (A).The quick victory increased national pride among Prussians.Won new respect from other Germans.
Seven Weeks WarBismarck purposely stirred up border conflicts with Austria over the two provinces.Austria declared war on Prussia in 1866.Prussians used their superior training and equipment devastating victory for Prussia.Austria = humiliatedAustrians lost Venetia.
Prussias ControlDue to its victory, Prussia took control of northern Germany.Eastern and western Prussia were joined for the first time.1867 the remaining states joined the North German Confederation.Prussia completely dominated.
The Franco-Prussian War1867 a few southern German states remained independent.Southern Germans CatholicPrussia ProtestantSouth resisted domination by Prussia.Bismarck felt that the southerners would give in if they felt an outside threat.Bismarck felt that a war with France would suffice.
Franco-Prussian War (cont.)Bismarck manufactured incidents.Created the impression that the French ambassador had insulted the Prussian king.France reacted by declaring war in 1870.Prussia entered France and captured 83,000 people including Napoleon III.Parisians finally gave in due to hunger.Final stage of German unification.
After the WarSouthern Germans finally had nationalistic feelings.Accepted Prussian leadership.1871 Captured Versailles.King Wilhelm I of Prussia was crowned kaiser or emperor.Called empire The Second ReichHoly Roman Empire was the first.
A Shift in PowerThe 1815 Congress of Vienna had established five Great Powers in Europe:Britain, France, Austria, Prussia and Russia1815 powers were nearly equal in strength.1871 Britain and Germany were the most powerful.European balance of power had broken down.