unification of germany and italy

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Unification of Germany and Italy. Stirrings of Nationalism. Italian Peninsula had not been unified since fall of Roman Empire Most spoke same language, but peninsula divided into competing states, each with own government Napoleon invaded Italy United many states under one government - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Unification of Germany and Italy


2Stirrings of NationalismItalian Peninsula had not been unified since fall of Roman Empire Most spoke same language, but peninsula divided into competing states, each with own government Napoleon invaded ItalyUnited many states under one governmentUnification did not lastAfter Napoleons defeat, Congress of Vienna split Italian statesSpirit of nationalism began to rise through Europe


Italian Unification was a combination of diplomatic moves and wars orchestrated by Camillo Cavour the Prime Minister of Sardinia.4Italian Unification Timeline1870 - Franco-Prussian War, Italy takes RomeITALY UNIFIED1859 War With Austria, Italy gets Lombardy with help of Napoleon III1852 Cavour becomes Prime Minister of Sardinia1861- Victor Emmanuel II Proclaimed King of ItalyCavour dies1860 Garibaldi and the Red ShirtLand in Sicily1871: Rome proclaimed capitalof unified Italy1866: 7 Weeks War, Italy sides with Prussia & receives VeniceRevolution of 18485In the years after unification, Italy faced many new challenges. Although politically unified, Italy had to deal with a number of social and economic problems. Strong regional differences led to lack of unitySouthern Italians resented being governed by RomeCatholic Church did not recognize Italy as legitimate nationSocial, Economic ProblemsPoverty serious problem, caused many to emigrate1880s, large numbers left Italy, many for AmericasUnemployment, rising taxes led to rioting, violencePoverty, EmigrationVoting reform a major priority1870, only wealthiest Italian men could voteBy late 1800s most adult male taxpayers could voteReformsChallenges After Unification


7Real PolitikHow: unify all German states under PrussiaMachiavellian leader: Real Politik: realistic assessment of a nations needs and then fulfilling them.Ends justify the means. Do what is necessary, not what is right or moral

8Path to UnificationZOLLVEREIN a customs union of German states that did not include Austria. Removed tarrifs between German statesBlood and Iron

9Blood and Iron Fights three wars to unify Germany Wins all threeDanish WarAustro Prussian WarFranco Prussian War the most important

10After UnificationCentralized PowerMilitarism/military alliancesEncouragement of IndustryPersecution of Subject NationalitiesGermanizationFought CatholicsFought Socialists


A Growing EconomyAfter the unification of Germany, it rose to be the Industrial giant of the Europe. Germanys chemical and electrical industries were beyond any other industries in the world. Germanys coal and iron resources resulted in massive growth of the economy. A work force and rapidly growing population also aided in the development of the economy.

12Create a chart like this in your notebook and complete!GOALSMETHODSBISMARCK(Germany)CAVOUR(Italy)GOALSMETHODSBISMARCKUnification of GermanyIncrease Prussian PowerDecrease Austrian influence in Germany (drive them out of Germany)blood and iron war, trickery, etc (7 Weeks War, tricked Austria; Franco-Prussian War)Realpolitik do whatever is necessary to achieve goals, not what is moral or rightCAVOURUnification of ItalyMake Sardinia a model of progress and efficiency (liberalism)Did not favor war, but was willing to use it if necessary (got involved in Crimean War to have a place at the peace negotiations in order to bring up the Italian question; joined Prussia in 7 Weeks War to get Venetia)Used plebiscites and majority opinion to unifyLet the Red Shirts and Garibaldi do work for him



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