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Unification of Italy and Germany 692-695, 700-704 Objective 1: to explore the unification of Italy and Germany and how Nationalism contributed to it. Slide 2 1.Realistic policies based on the needs of the state. 2.Otto von ______ helped to unite Germany 3.After the unification, Germany established the second _______, or empire. a. Reich b. Zollverein c. Bismarck d. Realpolitik e. Schleswig 5.Germany, especially the Prime Minister followed a policy of __________ (4) and _________ (5) Slide 3 1800s Germany is not yet a country Congress of Vienna created the German Confed. = loose collection of German speaking states + Austria and Prussia 1830s Prussia created the Zollverein (unite German states economically ) 1848 Frankfurt Assembly attempted to unify Germany politically - offer throne to Frederick William IV (Prussia) rejected crown, from the gutter Slide 4 Otto von Bismarck Junker became Prime Minister under King William I later becomes chancellor Followed policy of blood and iron to unite Germany under Prussia Realpolitik Prussia had German nationalism, industrialization/army on their side. Slide 5 Expansion Short-lived alliance w/ Austria v. Denmark. Why? Austria Holstein Prussia Schleswig 1866 Austro-Prussian War - Seven Weeks War gives Prussia more annexed territory Slide 6 Slide 7 Franco-Prussian War 1867 Southern Germany wouldnt join Prussia. Needed war to gain support from South. Ems Dispatch July 19, 1890 France declares war. Franco- Prussian War dominated by Prussians. Capture 80,000 soldiers and Napoleon III. South Germany joins Prussia. Slide 8 Bismarck's Edited Version: After the reports of the renunciation by the hereditary Prince of Hohenzollern had been officially transmitted by the Royal Government of Spain to the Imperial Government of France, the French Ambassador presented to His Majesty the King at Ems the demand to authorize him to telegraph to Paris that His Majesty the King would obligate himself for all future time never again to give his approval to the candidacy of the Hohenzollerns should it be renewed. His Majesty the King thereupon refused to receive the French envoy again and informed him through an adjutant that His Majesty has nothing further to say to the Ambassador. Slide 9 Slide 10 Slide 11 The Second Reich William I becomes Kaiser, or emperor January 1871 Second Reich (empire) formed Constitution sets up bicameral legislature: Reichstag (Lower House) elected by universal male suffrage. Bundesrat (Upper House) appointed by leaders. Can veto any decision by the Reichstag! Balance of Power in Europe tilted towards Germany/U.K. Slide 12 Italy Not unified politically since ancient Rome 1820 and 1848 Nationalist revolts against foreign (Austrian) rule Secret society Young Italy founded by Giuseppe Mazzini Slide 13 Camillo di Cavour becomes Prime Minister of Sardinia under Victor Emmanuel II. Reformed Sardinias economy, modernized 1858 deal with France, allowed for annexation of Lombardy following war with Austria Southern Italy united by Giuseppe Garibaldi after capture of Sicily w/ help of Red Shirts. Slide 14 Garibaldi union of Italy Distrust of Cavour, respect of Victor Emmanuel. Gives up hopes of Republic for united Italy. Gives up the south and retires. Venetia joins following Austro-Prussian war Rome joins following retreat of French in Franco-Prussian war Slide 15 Problems Pope resented seizure of Papal States and Rome Urged all Italians not to cooperate with government Constitutional Monarchy two house legislature, only small amount of men could vote leads to unrest

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