european nationalism unification of italy and germany, 1850-1871

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  • Slide 1
  • European Nationalism Unification of Italy and Germany, 1850-1871
  • Slide 2
  • Main Underlying Causes 1)Spread of nationalism 2)Revolutions of 1848: liberalism and nationalism part ways 3)Defeat of Russia in Crimean War 4)Isolation of Austria 5)Re-emergence of France under Napoleon III
  • Slide 3
  • Italy becomes Italy (the Italian state) Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872) Revolutionary democrat Republican Land question
  • Slide 4
  • Map_21.03.jpg
  • Slide 5
  • Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882) Republican Revolutionary Military leader guerilla fighter Land question
  • Slide 6
  • general garibaldi_HU056293.jpg
  • Slide 7
  • Count Camillo Benso di Cavour (1810-1861) Sardinian nobleman Prime minister of Sardinia-Piedmont King Victor Emmanuel II (1849- 1861) Conservative Ambitious Pragmatic
  • Slide 8
  • Map_21.03.jpg
  • Slide 9
  • Napoleon III, Emperor of France (1808-1873; r. 1848-1870) Nephew of Napoleon Re-emerging French Empire Sounded democratic Believed in personal rule and a centralized state Made a deal with Cavour: France promised Nice and Savoy (from Piedmont) Sardinia promised Lombardy and Venetia (from Austria)
  • Slide 10
  • Map_21.03.jpg
  • Slide 11
  • Unification of Italy Timeline 1859Austria goes to war against Sardinia-Piedmont (and France) 1860Napoleon bails, but Austria cedes Lombardy 1860Plebescites in Tuscany, Parma, and Modena May 1860Garibaldi and thousand Red Shirts go to Sicily 1861Kingdom of Italy declared (King Victor Emmanuel)
  • Slide 12
  • Massimo d'Azeglio First speaker of the new Italian Parliament: We have made Italy, now we must make Italians!
  • Slide 13
  • Unification of Germany, 1864-1871 William I, King of Prussia (r. 1861-1888) Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) Junker Brilliant diplomat Blood and iron Not revolution 1862 became Minister- President
  • Slide 14
  • bismark caricature_IH187050.jpg
  • Slide 15
  • Map_21.01.jpg
  • Slide 16
  • German Unification (cont.) Schleswig-Holstein (1864): Austria and Prussia against Denmark Austro-Prussian war of 1866 The Seven Weeks War
  • Slide 17
  • Map_21.04.jpg
  • Slide 18
  • Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71 Leopold von Hohenzollern Napoleon III, r. 1852-1870 January 18, 1871: Second German Empire (Reich) declared in the Palace of Versailles, Hall of Mirrors
  • Slide 19
  • Paris Commune, March 18-May 28, 1871

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