unit 4: latin american revolutions, nationalism, and the unification of italy and germany
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DESCRIPTIONUnit 4: Latin American Revolutions, Nationalism, and the Unification of Italy and Germany. From 1500 to 1800, Latin America was colonized by Europe, especially Spain . Mercantilism is when the colonies provide raw materials and markets for the mother country. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
24.2 Europe Faces Revolutions
Unit 4: Latin American Revolutions, Nationalism, and the Unification of Italy and Germany
From 1500 to 1800, Latin America was colonized by Europe, especially Spain European nations used mercantilism to gain wealth from their American colonies
Catholic missionaries from Spain & France converted Indians
Mercantilism is when the colonies provide raw materials and markets for the mother country.Reasons to colonizeGoldGodGloryGreed2Colonial Society DividedA Race and Class SystemLatin America has social classes that determine jobs and authorityPeninsularesborn in Spain, they head colonial government and societyCreolesAmerican-born Spaniards who can become army officersMestizoshave both European and Native American ancestryMulattoshave both European and African ancestrySlaves and Native Americans are at the bottom of society
Quick Class Discussion:Yes you must think a bit but it shouldnt hurt too muchWhich social group will lead these Latin American Revolutions? Why? Where did they get the idea to revolt & create democracies?
By the late 1700s, Latin Americans were inspired to gain independence because of the success of the American & French Revolutions The ideas of the Enlightenment inspired independence especially among the well-educated Creole class 6Latin American Revolutions
Revolutions in the AmericasRevolution in Hispaniola (Haiti)Haiti is the first Latin American territory to gain freedomToussaint LOuverture leads 100,000 slaves against the French (1791)Napoleon will send army to combat the Haitian Revolt.Toussaint eventually dies in a French prison in 1803.French soldiers weakened by outbreak of yellow fever.
Revolutions in HaitiHaitis IndependenceJean-Jacques Dessalines declares Saint Domingue (western third of Hispaniola) a country in 1804Saint Domingue becomes first black colony to win independenceRenamed Haiti, means mountainous land in the Arawak languageEmperor Jacques is assassinated in 1806 by disaffected members of his administration.In 1820, Haiti became a republic.
Mexico Ends Spanish RuleA Cry for FreedomFather Miguel Hidalgopriest who launches Mexican revolt (1810).Creoles supported revolt at first, but then rejected Hidalgos call for an end to slavery.80,000 Indian and Mestizo followers march on Mexico City
Jose Maria Morelosleads revolt after Hidalgos defeat, but losesBoth Hidalgo and Morelos were executed.
Mexico Ends Spanish RuleMexicos IndependenceMexican creoles react; Augustin de Iturbide (a Mexican General) declares Mexico independent (1821)Iturbide reigns briefly as emperor until March 1823.Republic of Mexico setup.In 1823, United Provinces of Central America breaks away from Mexico
Agustn de Iturbide
Iturbide is credited with designing the first Mexican flag. (1821-1823)Todays Flag of MexicoThe tri-color flag is still used, and the presence of the eagle is also used in the modern flag of Mexico used since 1968.Creoles Lead IndependenceThe Spread of Enlightenment IdeasEnlightenment ideas inspire Latin American revolutionariesCreole LeadersSimn Bolvar The Liberatorwealthy Creole leads Venezuela in revolutionJos de San Martnleader of Argentinean revolutionary forces
Bolivars 1807 return from Europe by way of the United States allowed him to study the American system of government.In 1810, Bolivar went to London to seek support for the revolution in Latin America. At the same time, he studied British institutions of government.
Portraits of Bolivar and San MartinCreoles Lead IndependenceBolvars Route to VictoryVenezuela declares independence in 1811; Bolivar wins war by 1821Liberates New Grenada (Columbia) and Ecuador.San Martn Leads Southern Liberation ForcesArgentina is independent in 1816; San Martin helps free ChileBolvars and San Martns armies drive Spanish out of Peru in 1824.Brazils Royal LiberatorA Bloodless RevolutionNapoleon invades Portugal; royal family moves to Brazil (1807)Portuguese court returns to Portugal after Napoleons defeat (1815)
The Imperial Palace in Rio de Janeiro where King John VI of Portugal had transferred the Portuguese Royal Court to Brazil.Brazils Royal LiberatorPortuguese prince Dom Pedro stays behind in BrazilDom Pedro accepts Brazilians request to rule their own countryHe officially declares Brazils independence (September 1822)He accepted a constitution that provided for freedom of the press, religion and an elected legislature.By 1830, nearly all of Latin American regions win independence
Pedro I of Brazil
Flag of the independent Empire of Brazil under Pedro IEuropean and American ReactionBritish were interested in establishing commercial opportunities and prevented intervention from other Europeans in Latin America.
American President James Monroe demanded that Europeans stay out of the affairs of the Western Hemisphere. (Monroe Doctrine)
Throughout Latin America, new democratic republics were createdBut, Latin Americans did not have a history of self-government & many of the new govts were unstableIn many nations, military dictators called caudillos seized power & made few reforms for citizens
Latin America became dependent on the USA Clash of PhilosophiesThree Philosophies: In the early 1800s, three schools of political thought conflict in EuropeConservativelandowners and nobles want traditional monarchiesLiberalwealthy merchants and business owners want limited democracyRadicalbelieve in liberty and equality. They want everyone to have a vote.ConservativesWanted to return to the way things were before 1789 & The French Revolution.Resist changeWant stabilityThose who ruled Europe after the French Revolution were conservativesThe Concert of Europe (periodic meetings between Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria and France) was an attempt to limit revolution and maintain conservative control Conservatives of the early 1800sPreferred a social order where the lower classes respected and obeyed the upper classesMost backed an established church (Catholic, Orthodox, or Protestant)Believed in slow changeThey did not believe in natural rights or constitutional governmentThere was a real fear of mob ruleMost felt that the uneducated poor were not capable of intelligent ruleMetternichMetternich of Austria felt that firm action was needed to maintain the status quoRepress any revolutionary ideasControl the pressCrush any protestsSend troops (even into neighboring countries) to suppress rebellionEstablish legitimacy of rule.
LiberalsAlong with nationalists, opposed conservativesMost were speaking for the bourgeoisie (middle class)Wanted constitutions and separation of power, natural rights, a republican form of government, protection of property rightsAlmost all opposed monarchies.Heavily influenced by Enlightenment and the French and American Revolutions
Liberals (cont.)Wanted universal manhood suffrageStrongly supported laissez faire economics (remember, most of these were businessmen-so most were capitalists)Therefore, many of these who supported bourgeois liberalism had different goals (as business owners) than did the workers in these factories
NationalistsWanted to do away with the artificial boundaries that had been set up for countries due to wars, treaties, dynastic marriages, etc.Wanted to unify as a country due to a common heritageA negative effect of nationalism was intolerance of minorities in a given area and, at times, persecution of other ethnic or national groupsNationalism DevelopsNationalism and Nation-StatesNationalismloyalty to a nation of people with common culture and historyNation-Statenation with its own independent governmentIn 1815 Europe, only France, England and Spain are nation-statesLiberals and radicals support nationalism, but conservatives do not.
Central Europe RevoltsRebellions erupted over the Balkan peninsula and along the southern fringe of EuropeThe Serbs were the first to revoltLed by Karageorge, they led a guerrilla war against the Ottomans (they were part of the Ottoman Empire) from 1804-1813He was unsuccessful, but stirred up intense Serbian nationalismSerbia Gains IndependenceSerbia gains autonomy, or self-rule under the leadership of Milos Obrenovic with the help of RussiaRussia was the largest Slavic country and looked upon Serbia as a little brotherBoth were Slavic in language and both were Christian Orthodox in religionNationalists Challenge Conservative PowerThe Eastern Question: Greeks Gain IndependenceBalkansregion of Europe controlled by the Ottomans in early 1800s.Greece gets European help to gain independence from the Turks.Britain and France send fleets.Russia invades provinces of Moldavia and Walachia
Nationalism Shakes Aging EmpiresThe Ottoman Empire WeakensInternal tensions among ethnic groups weaken the empire.This resulted in the region being highly unstable, known as the Balkan Powder KegSeeing the Ottomans as weak, the old man of Europe, the other European powers moved in to take what they wanted, splitting the Empire up.Russia moved around the Black Sea, Austria-Hungary grabbed Bosnia and Herzegovina, while England and France moved to take the Middle East and North Africa.
Europes Reaction Revolts occurred in Spain, Portugal, parts of ItalyMetternich urged rulers to crush any revolts in EuropeFrench and Austrian troops left their countries to smash uprisings in neighboring countriesThey were successful at first, but the result was the people getting even more upsetAgitators and social reformers began urging workers to support socialism or other new ideasNationalists Challenge Conservative Power1830s Uprisings CrushedBelgian, Italian, Polish liberals and nationalists launch revolts.By the mid-1830s, conservatives are back in controlFrance Revolts AgainLouis XVIII was put back on the French throne, but allowed a constitutio