chapter 15-reaction and nationalism section one-the unification of italy
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- Chapter 15-Reaction and Nationalism Section One-The Unification of Italy
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- The Unification of Italy The goal of Young Italy, the secret society founded by Giuseppe Mazzini in 1831 was to transform Italy into an independent sovereign nation. The three goals of Count Camillo di Cavour (the leading member of Sardinias council of ministers): a. The promotion of rapid industrial growth b. Reduction of the Catholic Churchs influence c. Advancement of Sardinias national interests in foreign affairs
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- The Unification of Italy Cavour decided to support France and Britain in the Crimean War to win their aid in his effort to expel Austria from the Italian Peninsula and unify Italy Victor Emmanuel II accepted Tuscany, Parma, Modena, and Romagna into his kingdom in April 1860. Giuseppe Garibaldi was the leader of the guerillas who defeated the army of the Kingdom of the Two Siciles
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- The Unification of Italy The first king of the constitutional monarchy of Italy was Victor Emmanuel II. The differences between the north and south of Italy at the time of unification: The north of Italy had begun to industrialize, while the southern part of the country remained poor and agricultural.
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- Romes capital Italy was prevented from locating its capital in Rome during the 1860s because the pope still ruled the city, so it was not part of the new nation.
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- Section Two- The Unification of Germany Germany remained divided and economically disadvantaged while Great Britain and France developed strong industrial economies. Germany had political and social antagonisms created by the Reformation and the Thirty Years War. The small German states disliked the idea of a united Germany because they feared domination by Prussia.
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- The Unification of Germany Austria wanted to maintain the divisions among the German states because it feared economic competition. Prussia was the German state that led the way in creating economic, military, and political unity among German states. Both William I and Otto von Bismarck believed that Prussia needed a powerful army to achieve German unity under the control of Prussia.
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- Bismarck Three objectives that caused Bismarck to go to war three times: a. To raise money for the expansion of the military b. To reduce Austrian influence among the German states c. To arrange the unification of all German states but Austria and Switzerland under Prussian domination
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- Bismarck Denmark, Austria, and France were three countries that Bismarck fought in war. Bismarck formed alliances with Austria, Russia, France, and Italy to fight the wars.
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- Unified Germany Kaiser William I was the first ruler of Germany. The Prussian Junkers and wealthy industrialists held power in the newly unified Germany
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- Section Three-Bismarcks Realm With the support of Kaiser William I, Bismarck became the key figure in the early German nation. The Kulturkampf was a cultural struggle for influence between the Catholic Church and the state after German unification. Bismarck needed the support of the Catholic Center party to defeat a serious challenge from the Socialists.
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- Bismarcks Realm By 1881 the German legislature had repealed most laws directed against Catholics, and the Kulturkampf was over. Prior to unification, the economy of the German states was primarily agricultural. The development of mechanized factories and coal mines and the growth of cities made Germany a major industrial power by the end of the 1800s.
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- Bismarcks Realm Rather than revolution, Ferdinand Lassalle advocated mass political action to bring about a democratic social order. The Universal German Workingmens Association, founded by Lassalle, became a major political force when it merged with the Social Democratic party in 1875.
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- Bismarcks Realm Bismarck tried to destroy the Socialist movement in Germany by introducing reforms that gave workers some measure of security. Bismarck made Germany strong, but his strict rule frustrated the development of democracy.
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- Section Four-Empire of the Czars In the early 1800s, the economic and political structure of Russian Empire was much as it had been for centuries. Czar Alexander I, who ruled from 1801- 1825, dreamed of making reforms, but soon lost his desire for improvements when revolution spread throughout Europe.
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- Empire of the Czars After Alexander Is death, Russian officers wanting change carried out the Decembrist Revolt. The government quickly crushed the movement, and Czar Nicholas I worked to strengthen autocracy and suppressed all opposition. Russias losses in the Crimean War, however, underscored the fact that the empire lagged behind other European powers militarily and economically.
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- Empire of the Czars Czar Alexander II realized that the system of serf labor prevented industrialization, since serfs could not leave the land to work in the factories. He decreed the emancipation of the serfs in 1861, but landless peasants became unskilled workers, and the reforms did not halt calls for revolution. Some radical reformers advocated anarchy, or the absence of government.
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- Empire of the Czars After the assassination of Alexander II, Alexander III promoted a policy of Russification, or intolerance and persecution of non-Russian peoples, especially Jews. By the early 1900s, several revolutionary groups followed the teachings of Karl Marx.
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- Empire of the Czars A humiliating defeat in a war with Japan strengthened the opposition of urban workers, middle-class intellectuals, and peasants to the czars government. In October 1905, angry workers seized control of all major cities in a general strike.
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- Section Five-Austria- Hungarys Decline Three demands of the nationalist groups that urged revolution in Austria in 1948: a. Freedom of speech and press b. Relief from feudal dues for peasants c. Representative government The Italian province of Lombardy and German states were two foreign territories that Austria lost from 1859 to 1866.
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- Ausgleich (Compromise) Terms of the Ausgleich that divided the Austrian Empire into a dual monarchy: a. Restored Hungarys independence b. Divided the Austrian Empire into empire of Austria and kingdom of Hungary c. Made Francis Joseph ruler of both areas d. Gave the two states common ministries of foreign affairs, war, and finance e. Gave each state complete independence regarding internal affairs
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- Austria-Hungarys Decline Austria and Hungary cooperated economically in that industrialized Austria supplied manufactured goods and agricultural Hungary supplied food products. The economy of Austria changed after creation of the dual monarchy. The production of coal, iron, steel, and manufactured goods grew rapidly.
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- Austria-Hungarys Decline The Austrian-Germans of Austria and the Magyars of Hungary were groups that were satisfied with the dual monarchy. The Slavs, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Serbs, and Bosnians were groups that were dissatisfied with the dual monarchy. Austria, France, and Great Britain were prepared to halt Russian expansion as the Ottoman Empire declined.
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- Austria-Hungarys Decline Terms of the 1878 Congress of Berlin: a. Division of Bulgaria into three parts b. Independence for Serbia, Montenegro, and Romania c. British control of Cyprus d. Austro-Hungarian control of Bosnia and Herzegovina Countries that watched events in the Balkans closely after the Treaty of Bucharest: Austria-Hungary, Russia, France, Great Britain, and Germany
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