world history/cultures chapter 15 - reaction & nationalism section 1- the unification of italy
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DESCRIPTIONWORLD HISTORY/CULTURES CHAPTER 15 - Reaction & Nationalism SECTION 1- THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY. Terms/Names nationalism - pride in one’s own nation; desire for independence. nation-state - political state whose people share same language & culture. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
WORLD HISTORY/CULTURES CHAPTER 15 - Reaction & Nationalism SECTION 1- THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY
Terms/Namesnationalism- pride in ones own nation; desire for independence.nation-state- political state whose people share same language & culture.guerrilla warfare- method of fighting in which small groups strike unexpectedly.Giuseppe Mazzini- Native of Genoa. Active leader in fight for independence. 1831- founded secret society Young Italy. Goal- make Italy an independent sovereign nation. Leader of Italian nationalist movement.
Charles Albert- King of kingdom of Sardinia. Joined fight to expel Austrians in Lombardy & Venetia.Victor Emmanuel II- King Charles Alberts son. 1849- becomes king of Sardinia. Supported unity movement.Count Camillo di Carvour- Helped king Victor Emmanuel II with unity movement. 1854- dominated Sardinias council of ministers. Goals- promote industrial growth, reduce influence of Catholic Church & advance Sardinias national interests in foreign affairs.Giuseppe Garibaldi- Military commander & adventurer. Leader of Italian nationalists. Expert in guerrilla warfare. 1848- took part in Mazzinis Roman Republic. 1849- Roman Republic fell & Garibaldi fled to U.S. Returns to Italy in 1860.
NationalismEconomic growth, success of American Revolution and the Napoleonic wars prompts unification in Italy.Desire for independence- nationalism.Prior to 1860s, Italy made up of many independent states.Some had foreign rulers. A French Bourbon monarch ruled the kingdom of Two Sicilies, Austria controlled Lombardy and Venetia and the pope controlled the papal states.Cultural & economic differences among independent Italian states.
Beginnings of UnificationItalian unity movement also called Risorigemento (resurgence/revival).Giuseppe Mazzini, native of Genoa. Leader in fight for independence. Founded secret society, Young Italy in 1831. Important to Mazzini is the nation-state. A unified country would be best for all. January 1848: Nationalists, inspired by Mazzini, have a republican revolt in Sicily. More revolts occur in Italian Peninsula due to revolts in France & Austria.King Charles Albert of the Kingdom of Sardinia, joins fight against Austrians when fighting breaks out in Lombardy & Venetia.
Beginnings of Unification contNationalists have troops from Naples, Tuscany and Papal States sent to fight Austrians.April 1848: Italian forces almost defeat Austrians. Pope Pius IX withdraws his troops as he opposed war with another Catholic country. Naples withdraws. Withdrawals cause defeat of Charles Alberts army and Austria regains control over Lombardy and Venetia.Nov 1848: Nationalists make Pope flee Rome. City now a republic and Mazzini called to head government. Catholic governments of Naples, Spain & France upset and pope restored to power in Rome. Italians lose faith in Mazzini and turn to Charles Albert and Sardinia for Italian unification.
Count Cavour1849, helped King of Sardinia Victor Emmanuel II, son of Charles Albert, with unity.1854: sent an army supporting France & Britain in Crimean War & Sardinia admitted to Congress of Vienna.1858: Met with Napoleon III. France would aid Sardinia if at war & Sardinia promised Savoy and Nice were given to France if Austria defeated.
Victor Emmanuel IICount Cavour
Count Cavour cont
April 1859 Nationalists revolt in Lombardy & Austria declares war on Sardinia. French forces aid Sardinia.June 1859: Austrians defeated. French suffered losses and withdrew forces. Napoleon III signs treaty with Austrias Emperor Francis Joseph. Sardinia given Lombardy & Austria kept control of Venetia.1859-1860: Fighting continues & rulers overthrown in Tuscany, Parma, Modena & papal province of Romagna. These territories demand to unite with Sardinia. In order to unite, Carvour gives France Savoy & Nice. Kingdom of Sardinia accepts territories.
Garibaldi & Southern ItalyItalian nationalists in the Kingdom of Two Sicilies led by Garibaldi.Expert in guerrilla warfare, Garibaldi in 1848, took part in Mazzinis Roman Republic. Republic fell in 1849 & Garibaldi fled homeland to U. S.1860: Garibaldi returns, takes troops and gains control of Sicily and Naples. King of Two Sicilies fled. Garibaldis army know as the Red Shirts.
Garibaldi & Southern Italy contCavour prevents further victories for Garibaldi. Sept 1860, Carvour sent Sardinia forces and defeats papal forces. Cavour kept control for unification.Southern Italy supports union with Sardinia & Garibaldi surrenders Naples & Sicily.1861: Italy united except for Rome & Venetia. Victor Emmanuel II king of constitutional monarchy of Italy.
New NationCountry divided culturally & economically. South poor and agricultural. North more industrialized. Due to differences, civil wars occur.Italian government creates unified military force & national education system. Railroads built.1866: Italy became allies with Prussia warring against Austria. Although Italy defeated by Austria, Prussia gives Venetia to Italy.Rome becomes national capital when French troops withdrew protecting papal city in 1871. Capital moved from Florence to Rome and Italy politically unified.