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Nationalism: Italian and German Unification Failure of 48 for liberals and Romantics demonstrated that strong idealism not enough to accomplish revolutionary goals After 1850 age of realism replaced Romanticism as dominant philosophy A political representation of realism is the notion of realpolitik: accomplishing ones political goals via practical means (as opposed to idealism driving political decisions). Nationalist goals were achievesd step by step. Who does this sound like from the past? Yes, him. Ital. Unificcation, Germ. Unification, Hungarian autonomy Emergence of realpolitik: Slide 2 Italian Unification Story of three men Story of three men Giuseppe Mazzinipublicist The Heart Camillo Cavourstateman The Head Giuseppe Garibaldisoldier The Sword Until 1850 Italy was dominated by outsiders Until 1850 Italy was dominated by outsiders Austrian Empire and Pope led opposition Austrian Empire and Pope led opposition Many different visions of a united Italy Many different visions of a united Italy Mazzini: centralized dem-rep based on univ. male suffr. and will of the people Gioberti: Cath priest.federation of existing states under presidency of a progressive pope Sardinia-Piedmont (autocratic kingdom) ala Germans and Prussia Many were apathetic to idea Many were apathetic to idea Slide 3 Slide 4 Slide 5 Nationalism Movement spread by a secret society Carbonari(coal-burners) Movement spread by a secret society Carbonari(coal-burners) Influenced by French Revolution Led revolts in 1820 and 1831 Giuseppe Mazziniprophet of Italian Nationalism Formed new group called Young Italy Campaigns for national Italian dialect Slide 6 Unification comes by military and diplomatic means Unification comes by military and diplomatic means Primarily under the leadership of the one state in Italy under Italian control, the Kingdom of Sardinia/Piedmont Primarily under the leadership of the one state in Italy under Italian control, the Kingdom of Sardinia/Piedmont Slide 7 Count Camillo Cavour Prime Minister of Kingdom of Sardinia under King Vic E. Prime Minister of Kingdom of Sardinia under King Vic E. Build Sardinia/Piedmont into modern economically sound state Build Sardinia/Piedmont into modern economically sound state Clear objectives for Sardinia- Politics of reality Clear objectives for Sardinia- Politics of reality Northern Italy under Sardinias control Not interested in Southern Italy Too different-poor and agrarian Too different-poor and agrarian Establish kingdom as a serious European power Fights in Crimean war Negotiates French support in war with Austria Slide 8 Creation of a Unified Northern Italy Prompted by Piedmonts victory over Austria, several Italian revolt. Prompted by Piedmonts victory over Austria, several Italian revolt. Tuscany, Modena, Parma and Romagna revolt and vote to join Piedmont. Tuscany, Modena, Parma and Romagna revolt and vote to join Piedmont. By 1869, Italy consists of three region, a northern Italian Kingdom, the Papal States and the Kingdom of Two Sicilies By 1869, Italy consists of three region, a northern Italian Kingdom, the Papal States and the Kingdom of Two Sicilies Slide 9 Slide 10 Giuseppe Garibaldi Leader of a guerilla movement Leader of a guerilla movement Expedition of the Thousand (Red Shirts) Expedition of the Thousand (Red Shirts) Venture south into Sicily to bring about revolution Quickly overthrow the corrupt government of the Two Sicilies Cavour now invades the south and takes (or is it unites?) the prize from Garibaldi. Slide 11 Unification By 1861, all of Italy except Rome and Venetia are united. By 1861, all of Italy except Rome and Venetia are united. Leadership under King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia Leadership under King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia Venetia will be added in 1866 Venetia will be added in 1866 Rome seized in 1870. Rome seized in 1870. Slide 12 Slide 13 Problems after Unification Italypoor w/ large illiterate population Italypoor w/ large illiterate population Division between church and state Division between church and state Economic divisions between the North and South Economic divisions between the North and South Localism too strong in many areas Localism too strong in many areas Development of local strongmen Little knowledge of and participation in govt Slide 14 Solutions to problems? Industry and trade were fostered by govt transformismo Industry and trade were fostered by govt transformismo Improved agricultural methods developed Improved agricultural methods developed Govt encouraged emigration to USease over-popn due to high birthrate Govt encouraged emigration to USease over-popn due to high birthrate High taxes pd to support growing Army and Navy High taxes pd to support growing Army and Navy Slide 15 German Unification The last big unification piece of the 19 th century The last big unification piece of the 19 th century Most important in Europe from 1848 to 1914 Transformed the economic, military and diplomatic balance of power The question of German unification would center around the two dominate German speaking countries of the periodPrussia and Austria The question of German unification would center around the two dominate German speaking countries of the periodPrussia and Austria After 1848, Prussia was the increasing dominant power. After 1848, Prussia was the increasing dominant power. Slide 16 Otto von Bismarck Comes to dominate Prussian, then German politics from 1962-1890 Prussian Chancellor from 1862 One of most remarkable leaders of 19 th century Came from Junker class (noble landlord) in East Prussia Practiced realpolitik, little faith in liberalism or nationalism. Practical, pragmatic. By any means necessary Conservative, but willing to work with middle class liberals Iron and Blood speech(1862)willing to use force to unify Germany, strengthen Prussia Slide 17 Slide 18 Early Steps to Unification Existing Pieces Existing Pieces Zollvereincustoms union Maintained economic links Excluded Austria Frankfurt AssemblyAssembly of all German states to exchange ideas Bismarck needed to establish dominance in the Prussian government Bismarck needed to establish dominance in the Prussian government Weaken power of liberals Issue of taxation for expanded army Slide 19 Wars of Unification War with Denmark(1864) War with Denmark(1864) Dispute over Schleswig-Holstein Supported by Austria Joint occupation War with Austria(1866) War with Austria(1866) Seven Weeks War (Austro-Prussian War) Quickly defeated Austria and German allies Austria forced to give up role within Germany Slide 20 Slide 21 North German Confederation Formation of the North German Confederation Formation of the North German Confederation Prussia annexes Hanover, Hesse, Nassau and Frankfurt Sets up basis of political structures Appearance of liberalism but in reality a military monarchy 2 House Legislature-- Bundesrat and Reichstag Little real power Little real power Liberalism defeated by dream of unification Slide 22 Franco-Prussian War In many ways can be viewed as the first shots of World War I. In many ways can be viewed as the first shots of World War I. Napoleon III realizes after Prussian victories in Denmark and Austria that he must prevent German unification. Napoleon III realizes after Prussian victories in Denmark and Austria that he must prevent German unification. Bismarcks goal was to complete unification by bringing into union the Catholic South German states. Bismarcks goal was to complete unification by bringing into union the Catholic South German states. Slide 23 Ems Telegram Bismarck finds an diplomatic issue as excuse for war Bismarck finds an diplomatic issue as excuse for war Question of member of German Royal Family assuming Spanish throne Question of member of German Royal Family assuming Spanish throne France opposes for strategic purposes (encirclement) Pressures Wilhelm I to refuse Pushes issue too far Bismarck edits telegram from Kaiser makes it appear as a German insult to France Popular press forces France to declare war on Prussiamatter of honor Popular press forces France to declare war on Prussiamatter of honor Slide 24 War France is ill-prepared for conflict France is ill-prepared for conflict Technologically backward compared to Prussia War was over in 6 months War was over in 6 months The states of Southern Germany joined the Northern German Confederation against France. The states of Southern Germany joined the Northern German Confederation against France. Prussians strike a devastating defeat on the French at Sedan Prussians strike a devastating defeat on the French at Sedan Captured 100,000 French troops Take Napoleon III prisoner Slide 25 Peace Terms France forced to pay a humiliating price for defeat France forced to pay a humiliating price for defeat 5 billion franc reparations Alsace and Lorraine turned over to Germany Important industrial region of France Northern France occupied for three years Plants the seeds for future year Plants the seeds for future year French will vow revenge for embarrassment Slide 26 Creation of a German Empire Bismarck and William I proclaim a German Empire at Versailles. Bismarck and William I proclaim a German Empire at Versailles. Another insult to France German Princes remained heads of their respective states within the Empire. Culmination of Bismarcks activities Culmination of Bismarcks activities Consolidated German Empire: uniform currency and legal code Suppress Catholics in South: Kulturkampf:restrict church, esp. in ed and clergy Slide 27 Slide 28 Impact Fact and manner of German unification produced long term effects on Europe Fact and manner of German unification produced long term effects on Europe New German Empire far stronger than Prussia alone Militarily, economically it is strongest nation in Europe Blow to European liberalism New state is a conservative monarchy Major impact on Balance of Power France and Austria