ap german & italian unification

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  • 1. The Crimean War 1853-1856

2. Russia Vs. Ottoman Empire Why? Religious Issues OE gave France/RC control of some Christian sites in Holy Land Rus. occupied OE provinces of Moldavia & Walachia in order to protect Orthodox Christians Russia Warm Water Port 3. Russia Vs. France & Great Brita Sided w/ OE28 March 1854 Declared war on Rus. Why?Naval &commercial interests in Med.Napoleon III help raise popularity @ home Austria & Prussia = neutral 4. Outcomes Both sides = poorlyequipped andcommanded Sept. 1855 Rus. fortress(Sevastopol) fell to Fr.& GB 5. A War of Firsts Medical Treatment High death rate (1 in 6) due tounsanitary conditions Cholera Typhus Dysentery Florence Nightingale + 38 nursesvolunteered Fought deplorable hospitalconditions Result: better sanitation & fewer Florence Nightingale, British Heroinedeaths 6. Nightingale Nurses of Crimean War 7. A war of Firsts Journalism Photo-journalism First war photos ever Roger Fenton (GB) First War Photographer 8. Allied Camp at Sevastopol 9. The tombs of the generals on CathcartsHill 10. CossackBay,Balaklava. 11. A BritishOfficer 12. British Hussar(Calvary) 13. British Officers 14. FrenchSoldiers 15. FrenchGeneralBosquetGiving Orders 16. OttomanSoldiers 17. Treaty of Paris - 1856 Ended Crimean War Required Russia to:Surrender territoryRecognize neutrality of Black SeaRenounce claims of protection over Christians in OE Shattered Russias mighty image 18. Outcomes Post-Treaty Concert of Europe shatteredNations more willing to fight to overthrow existing orders than to fight to defend them Austriaasserted more influence w/inthe Germ. Federation Prussiaunhappy with a secondary role(behind Austria) in Germ. 19. Consequences Europe = unstableapx. 25 years Without the Concert, each nation thought itwas only restrained by limits of its military power diplomatic influence 20. Italian unification1858-1870 21. Beginnings of Nationalism Napoleon united many states under 1govt COV Split Italian states w/ no regard for nationalgroups Placedunder control of large empires: Austria France 22. Secret SocietiesItalian artists, writers, thinkers became interested in celebrating Italys cultural traditionsOthers formed secret societies to work for politicalchange Some even plotted to overthrow the Austriangovernment in Italy 23. Mazzini & Young Italy1831: Giuseppe Mazzini, launched anationalist group called Young Italy tofight for unification of the Italian statesMazzini had been exiled but smuggledpatriotic pamphlets into ItalyYoung Italy attracted tens of thousandsof Italians to the cause of unification 24. Secret Societies Carbonari Secret society inspired by Fr Rev Members: mid-class, intellectuals Anti-RC Church Pope excommunicated them Pro-Unification 25. The Path Toward Unity As nationalism grew, some Italians ledunsuccessful rebellions Then, two men rose to lead a successfulmovement to unify Italy 26. Count Cavour Camiliodi Cavour Sardinia Founded the nationalistnewspaper, IlRisorgimento - orresurgence 27. Kingdom of Sardinia 1852: Cavour = Prime Minister Rebuilt economyw/ goal of unification(monarchy) Strategic alliance w/ France Sardinia supported France in war with Russia& gave them the provinces of Savoy & Nice In turn, France supported Sardinia in its waragainst Austria - (successful liberation) 28. Garibaldi & the Red Shirts Mazzini = heart Cavour = brain Garibaldi = sword 29. Garibaldi Young Italy member (1833) At Cavours request, fought againstAustria (1854) Result: Gained Lombardy from Austria 30. The Red Shirts Red Shirts = Garibaldis followers By July 1860 - gained control of Sicily By September - conquered Naples Garibaldi wanted a republic, but Kingdom of Two SiciliesSardinian king VictorEmmanuel II 31. Unification 1861: territories held elections, all agreed to unification Holdouts were Venetia, still belonging to Austria; PapalStates, under French troops supporting pope 1866: Prussia defeated Austria, gave Venetia to Italy 1870: Prussia forced French to w/dfrom Rome 1870: completed unification under King Victor Emmanuel II 32. Garibaldi Victor Emmanuel IICavour 33. German Unification 1871 34. Zollverein Von Metternich Opposed united Germany Prussia leader Zollverein: economic union Eliminated tariffs among German states Politically fragmented 35. Otto von Bismarck Prussian Junker 1862 chancellor toKaiser* Wilhelm I*Kaiser = king 36. Bismarcks loyalty Not a Germannationalist Loyal to theHohenzollerns the Prussianroyal family 37. Old Blood and Iron Strong military = important Wanted more $ military Parliament - no Famous Blood and Ironspeech 38. Bismarck (cont.)Germany does not look to Prussias liberalism, but to her powerThe great questions of the day are not to be decided by speeches and majority resolutions that was the mistake of 1848 and 1849 but by blood and iron! 39. Realpolitik Strong will Powerful manipulator Master of Realpolitik politics of reality based on practical matters, not theory or ethics Often resulted in ruthless decisions 40. Bismarcks wars 41. 1864: Schleswig & Holstein Allied w/ Austria Seized fromDenmark Split: Austria Holstein PrussiaSchleswig 42. 1866: Austro-Prussian War Prussia + Italy attacked Austria Seven Weeks War Prussiawon Peace of Prague of 1866 annexed Holstein + other German states Banned A from Germ affairs P did NOT seek any A territory (Realpolitik why?) 43. 1870: Franco-Prussian War Growing rivalry between: France (Napoleon III) Prussia (Wilhelm I & Bismarck) Relative of Wilhelm offered Spanish throne France protested Bismarck rallied Germans (all Germans) 44. Ems Dispatch Bismarck releasedaltered telegram Wilhelm insultedFrench ambassador Napoleon III (France)declared war on Prussia 45. On to Berlin! France attackedPrussia Prussia militarysuperiority - won Napoleon IIIsurrendered (POW) 46. Germany Unifies January 18,1871 German Confederationmade official Bismarck + 600German princes,nobles, andgeneralsgatheredatVersailles Wilhelm I of Prussia =Kaiser of the Second 47. Treaty of Frankfurt of 1871 Peace treaty - May 1871 France Paid huge indemnities (occupied by Prussiauntil paid) Gave up Alsace & Lorraine All that was left were bitter feelings andthe desire for revenge 48. Bismarcks Kulturkampf: Anti-Catholic ProgramTake education&marriage out ofclergy;s hands civil marriages only recognizedThe Jesuits are expelled from Germany.The education of Catholic priests = under supervision of German govt 49. Bismarck & Pope Leo XIII 50. Kaiser Wilhelm II r. 1888-1918 51. Dropping thePilot 1890 Wilhelm II dismissesBismarck Wilhelm I puppetgovt (Bismarck incontrol) Wilhelm II wantedto rule on his own 52. Eastern Europe Late 19th Century 53. Austria 54. Austria Tensions btwn Austria & Hungary = great(Hungarian War of Independence of 1848) 1866: Austria lost A-P War excluded from Germany very vulnerable/weak Magyars posed a serious threat 55. Nationalities of the Austrian Empire 56. The Compromise of 1867 The Dual Monarchy Austria + Hungary = Austro-HungarianEmpire 57. How It worked Austrian empire divided in half Hungary gained autonomy but joined w/Austria by One king (Franz Josef I) Finance Ministry Defense Min Foreign affairs Min 58. Emperor Franz Josef Ir. 1848-1916 59. Troubles Austria Poles Czechs Slavs Hungary Croatians Romanians Mixed ethnicities nationalism divisive& slowly weakened A-H Empire 60. 19th C. Russia 61. Nicholas Ir. 1825 - 1855 Autocracy Orthodoxy Nationalism 62. Alexander IIr. 1855-1881 Attempted to liberalize &modernize Russia EmancipationManifesto(1861) abolished serfdom Nobility opposed "It is better to abolishserfdom from above thanto wait for the time when itwill begin to abolish itselffrom below. 63. Other Reforms Created Zemstvos local elected counselsthat provided: Roads Schools Medical service Elections = wealthy 64. Other Reforms (cont.) Improved municipal government Universal military training (1874) Encouraged expansion Industry Railway network Still, some were unhappy 65. Haters Liberals/Radicals wanted: Parliamentary democracy Freedom of expression Peasants Disappointed w/ Ag. reforms Paid more for land than worth Not taken care of 66. Secret Societies Illegal to criticize Tsar Land & Liberty reform group Demanded land be given to peasants Some members wanted to use violence Assassination attempt 67. Narodnayavolya Peoples Will Faction of Land & Liberty Wanted constitution Favored violence/terrorism Many unsuccessful attempts on Tsars life 68. Okhrana Result: development of a special sectionof the Russian police force to deal w/internal security Under cover agents Often joined rev. groups to spy on them 69. Assassination of Alexander II 1 March 1881 St. Petersburg 2 explosions Peoples Will 70. The Deceased Alexander II 71. The Peoples Will Plotters arrested, tried &executed (actual assassin had died in explosion) 72. Alexander III Inherited throne fromfather More later