key terms – nationalism and unification
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DESCRIPTIONSchleswig-Holstein Austro-Prussian War North German Confederation Franco-Prussian War Ems Telegram Treaty of Frankfurt Kaiser Bundesrat Reichstag. Key Terms – Nationalism and Unification. Nationalism Patriotism Propaganda Confederation of the Rhine Zollverein Blood and Iron - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Key Terms Nationalism and UnificationNationalismPatriotismPropagandaConfederation of the RhineZollvereinBlood and IronWilhelm IOtto von BismarckSchleswig-HolsteinAustro-Prussian WarNorth German ConfederationFranco-Prussian WarEms TelegramTreaty of FrankfurtKaiserBundesratReichstag
Nationalism v. PatriotismNationalism extreme pride in one's country.People believed that supporting their country through times of crisis made it easier for them to survive the crisis themselves.Patriotism love of one's country.Patriotic people feel it is their duty to repay their country for what has been provided to them.Claim that their patriotism allows them to question the motives of their countries.
Ways to Inspire BothWhen countries face times of crisis, they attempt to rally the support of their citizens through propaganda.Propaganda form of communication aimed at influencing the attitude of a community towards a specific position.Propaganda involves the use of posters, slogans and other forms of media to change public opinion.
German UnificationPrior to 1848, Germany was broken up into 38 states ruled mostly by princes or kings.16 of these states unified to become the Confederation of the Rhine.The ties between the states were loose at best and had no centralized government
Confederation of the Rhine (cont.)The Confederation of the Rhine was only held together by a taxation union known as the Zollverein.Frederick William IV was offered the opportunity to rule over a unified Germany but refused on the basis that it would dissolve his absolute rule.
The Blood and Iron MovementA vision of a unified Prussia would come from the rule of Wilhelm I.Otto von Bismarck, selected as chief minister by Wilhelm I offered an idea to unify Germany known as the Blood and Iron Movement.The states would be unified by the blood of their enemies and the iron of their swords; in other words, unification via war.
Obstacles to UnificationThere were many obstacles standing in the way of German unification.The Austrians and the French opposed unification because they did not want to see a strong German country established in the center of Europe.The German princes opposed unification because they did not want to give up their power to a national government.
Schleswig-Holstein1864, Danish forces would take over an area known as Schleswig.Prussians and Austrians objected to the Danish occupation of the territory.Would attack the Danish forces and win the territories of Schleswig and Holstein from the Danes.Prussians would acquire Schelswig and the Austrians would acquire Holstein.
Austro-Prussian WarWar fought in 1866, also known as the Seven Weeks' War.France and Russia were convinced by Bismarck to stay out of the war to ease the defeat of Austria.Austria would be defeated easily and would cede control of Holstein to the Prussians.
North German ConfederationTo consolidate Prussian power, Bismarck constructed the North German Confederation union of many northern German states under the rule of Prussia.Southern Germans did not want to join for two reasons:Religious differenceFear of French intervention.
The Two House LegislatureBundesratUpper houseMembers were appointed by the kaiser and chancellorWere mostly people that were sympathetic to the positions of the kaiser and chancellorReichstagLower houseMembers were electedGoverned by a chief officer (Bismarck at the time)
Road to WarBismarck wanted to use French nationalism as a weapon against the French themselves.He used the selection of the next Spanish king as a means of stirring up warfare.Bismarck convinced the French, through manipulation of the Ems Telegram (a letter sent to Bismarck from King William I stating a Prussian prince would not be selected), that they had been insulted by the Spanish.Once this exchange was made public, war was demanded by the French and Prussians.
Franco-Prussian WarWar started in July 1870.Southern German states assisted the North German Confederation.The Germans would defeat a Napoleon III led army.Would take Napoleon III prisoner and march on Paris in 1871, Paris surrendered.
UnificationTreaty of Frankfurt ended the Franco-Prussian War and ceded Alsace and Lorraine to Germany.Bismarck would meet with all of the German leaders at the Palace of Versailles.German Empire would be constructed at this meeting and Wilhelm I would become the first kaiser (emperor) of Germany.