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  • Slide 1
  • Warm Up What is nationalism? How does nationalism effect unification? What do you think are some pros and cons of nationalism?
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  • Unit 8: Unification & Politics of the 19 th Century (1815-1914)
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  • Germany Before Unification 39 States: The German Confederation Two dominant states Austria & Prussia Prussias advantages Mainly German population Powerful Army Industrialization
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  • Early Action towards Unification Zollverein (1834): German customs union Purpose was to stimulate trade, increase revenues of member states Left out Austria why? Wanted to weaken Austrias power over German states Relationship between Austria and other states deteriorate
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  • Prussia Frankfurt Assembly (1848) Movement for German unification (excluding Austria) fails Olmutz (1850) Major European powers afraid of German unification Prussia forced to give up unification plan and accept the renewed German Confederation, still dominated by Austria Prussians refer to it as Humiliation of Olmutz Move towards more liberal government under King William I (ruled 1861-1888)
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  • Warm Up What is realpolitik? Come up with at least two pros and two cons for realpolitik.
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  • William I & Bismarck William I: Conservative Supported by Junkers (nobles) Allowed liberals and moderates in government Wanted to strengthen army and unify Germany Liberals refused to approve army build-up Calls upon Otto Von Bismarck for assistance in 1862 stalemate over budget Realpolitik politics through sheer force and power To gain practical results, make no moral or ideological considerations just do it Ends justify the means
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  • Bismarcks Realpolitik Bismarck urges king to ignore the liberals in government Enforce taxes, build army Bismarck becomes leader of unification movement named Prime Minister by William Bismarck a master politician Would wisely assess a political scene, used cleverness and force to accomplish goals The great questions of the day will not be decided by speeches and resolutions, that was the blunder of 1848 and 1849 but by blood and iron.
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  • Bismarcks Main Goal: UNITE GERMAN STATES Bismarck unites Germany in three steps
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  • STEP ONE Create alliance with Austria 1864 Went to war with Denmark over bordering regions of Schleswig and Holstein Prussia & Austria win in six weeks Prussia got Schleswig Austria got Holstein Bismarck knew this arrangement would cause tension Just what he wanted WHY?
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  • STEP TWO Create conflict with Austria Border conflicts between Prussia and Austria over Schleswig & Holstein With war looming, Bismarck isolates Austria from allies Convinces France to stay neutral Promised Italy control of Venetia (still owned by Austria)
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  • STEP TWO Lures Austria into war Austro-Prussian War Seven Weeks War Prussia defeats Austria at Battle of Sadowa (July 1866) Results of war: Austria lost Venetia to Italy (who helped Prussia) Prussia gained control of northern German states
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  • STEP THREE Needed the Catholics in the South to feel a sense of German nationalism France was isolated by Bismarcks diplomacy Ems Dispatch Bismarck altered a telegram sent from Prussia to France outrages both nations France declares war (1870)
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  • STEP THREE Franco-Prussian War (1870) France launches attack on southern German states Outside attack stirred nationalism in south, desire for protection Prussia sweeps down and defeats French at Battle of Sedan, Siege of Paris French surrender
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  • Treaty of Frankfurt (1871) France owes compensation, forfeits Alsace and part of Lorraine Second Reich proclaimed (First Reich refers to Holy Roman Empire) William I crowned emperor of German Empire
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  • Mission Accomplished: Germany is United
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  • The Second Reich King William I (AKA Kaiser Wilhelm I) from House of Hohenzollern Hohenzollern monarch had ruled in Prussia and parts of Germany for centuries Kaiser headed federal union, 26 states, 41 million in population Bicameral legislature: Bundersat (upper house) Reichstag (lower house) Legislature does not have power over Chancellor
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  • Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck Bismarck believes effective states have one faith, one law, one ruler Distrusted Catholic Church, Socialist party Launched: Kulturkampf persecution against Catholics Tried to suppress socialists, Socialist Democratic Party Despite Bismarcks anti-socialists laws, party gains popularity Eventually compromised on both issues
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  • New Kaisers William I dies in 1888 His son, Frederick III is crowned new Kaiser More open to socialist and liberal movements Plans to apply more liberal ideas in Germany Dies of cancer after 3 months of ruling His son, William II (AKA Wilhelm II) crowned new Kaiser rules from 1888- 1918 Will be last of the Hohenzollern rulers by 1918
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  • True or False: Many countries began to change from capitalist government/economies to socialist government/economies during the 1800s. FALSE: Socialism was just a new idea that began and gained some support throughout the Industrial Age. No governments will completely change to socialism until Russia in the 1920s.
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  • Test Corrections Giving everyone credit for #1 (test is now out of 58, not 60) The short answer needs to be completely rewritten for a 1/3 of the credit. Will give you back 33% of your lost points IF and ONLY IF corrections are done right...
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  • 1. All of the following IMPROVED as an early result of the Industrial Revolution EXCEPT A. Workers rightsC. Factory working conditions B. TransportationD. The quality of clothing Bad Test Correction: The answer is D because the quality of clothing got better when the Industrial Revolution started OR The quality of clothing improved as an early result of the Industrial Revolution. Not workers rights, transportation, or factory working conditions. Good Test Correction: The quality of clothing improved very much during the early part of the Industrial Revolution because the first machines in factories, such as the power loom, were designed to produce cloth better and faster. Workers rights, better transportation, and better conditions in factories wouldnt come until later on in the Industrial Revolution.
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  • Kaiser Wilhelm II New emperor lacked finesse, intelligence of father and grandfather Resented Bismarcks power, pressured him into retiring Germany still progressed flourished Highly competitive industry against Britain Dominated world market in chemicals, electrical industries High literacy, vocational training, government supported industry
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  • Warm Up Why did the rest of Europe try to stop Germany from uniting? What made it easier for the German confederation to unite? Why was Germany so successful once they did unite?
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  • The Austrian Empire: What is a big problem here?
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  • Decline of Austria Nationalism rising throughout empire Problem for Austrians? NOT Austrian nationalism: Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, German, Czech, Italian, Slovakian, etc. Hungarians demanding equality with Vienna Revolution for independence in 1848 fails 1864 Defeat in Austro-Prussian War Afterwards, King Franz Joseph I (Habsburg) offers Hungary equal power Ausgleich constitution accepted in 1867 Creates a Duel Monarchy: Franz Joseph now king of Hungary and emperor of Austria
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  • Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary Both Austria and Hungary had own constitution, language, flag, economies, etc Ethnic crises in both parts of the empire 8 different nationalities, languages, cultures, etc Hungarians try to force Magyarization Forcing diverse citizens to practice only one language and culture: Hungarian Complete disunity and disorganization Chaotic, weak and inefficient empire would last until 1914
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  • Warm Up So far, how had nationalism affected both Germany and Austria? How do you think it will affect Italy?
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  • Italy Before Unification Italy reorganized at Congress of Vienna in 1815 Austria ruled Lombardy & Venetia Spanish ruled Kingdom of Two Sicilies Piedmont-Sardinia was the most powerful of the Italian States, ruled by King Charles Albert an Italian monarch
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  • Early Action Revolutions of 1830 Giuseppe Mazzini attempts to organize a movement Takes power from fleeing Pope Pius forms a Roman Republic France invades, restores Popes power Revolutions of 1848 Many states granted temporary liberal constitutions Both Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi involved in this movement
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  • Piedmont-Sardinia Takes Control King Victor Emmanuel II Monarch of Sardinia Prime Minister Camillo Cavour aristocrat Liberal, uses diplomacy against Austria Gains support of Britain & France Uses Realpolitik Together will lead unification Goal at first: strengthen Sardinias power, not to necessarily unify Italy Focused on Northern Italy What empire was in their way in Northern Italy?
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