unification italy and germany. nationalism ► nationalism - loyalty to a nation rather than to its...

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  • UnificationItaly and Germany

  • NationalismNationalism - Loyalty to a nation rather than to its rulerPeoples national identityPeople share common language, religion, & culture

  • Nationalism1848 Revolutions - poor and working-class people revolt all over Europe (except England / Russia)Revolutions are unsuccessful, but fuel Nationalism

  • Italy

  • ItalyPre-unification:Northern Italy ruled by AustriaSouthern Italy ruled by Spanish kings

  • ItalyGiuseppe Mazzini (26yrs old) forms Young ItalyYoung Italian nationalists No one over 40 can joinYoung Italy fails, but fuels nationalism

  • ItalyCount Camillo di Cavour - Prime Minister of Sardinia (Italian Kingdom)Allies with France to drive Austrians out of Northern ItalyFunds Garibaldi's rebels in Southern Italy

  • Count Cavour

  • ItalyGiuseppe Garibaldi - led Italian nationalist army called Red ShirtsCaptures Sicily and unites Southern ItalyAdds land he conquers to Sardinia

  • Giuseppe Garibaldi

  • ItalyJoint Italian army conquers Papal States (last to be added)Rome becomes capital (1871)Church keeps Vatican City

  • ItalyItaly is unified and Rome becomes its official capital in 1871.Victor Emmanuel II is the first official king of all of Italy.

  • ItalyProblems after unification: Different ways of lifeNorthern Italy IndustrialSouthern Italy AgriculturalDifferent dialects of ItalianEconomic problems

  • Germany

  • GermanyPre - Unification: German Confederation dominated by Prussia under Kaiser Wilhelm I Prussia - all German, strong army, industrialized

  • GermanyOtto von Bismarck - Prime Minister of PrussiaRealpolitik Bismarcks ideology Achieve / hold power by any means necessary "blood and iron"

  • Otto von Bismarck

  • GermanyAustro-Prussian WarPrussia takes territory from Austria and unifies Northern Germany

  • GermanyFranco-Prussian War (1870 1871)Bismarck faked a telegram between Wilhelm and Napoleon III of France to start a warGerman kingdoms unite against France

  • GermanyPrussian army lays siege to Paris and defeats the FrenchAfter the war, the German Empire is officially declaredBismarck Chancellor of Germany

  • Otto von Bismarck

  • UnificationWith Italy and Germanys rise to power, Europes Balance of Power is destroyed

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