unification italy and germany. nationalism ► nationalism - loyalty to a nation rather than to its...
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UnificationItaly and Germany
NationalismNationalism - Loyalty to a nation rather than to its rulerPeoples national identityPeople share common language, religion, & culture
Nationalism1848 Revolutions - poor and working-class people revolt all over Europe (except England / Russia)Revolutions are unsuccessful, but fuel Nationalism
ItalyPre-unification:Northern Italy ruled by AustriaSouthern Italy ruled by Spanish kings
ItalyGiuseppe Mazzini (26yrs old) forms Young ItalyYoung Italian nationalists No one over 40 can joinYoung Italy fails, but fuels nationalism
ItalyCount Camillo di Cavour - Prime Minister of Sardinia (Italian Kingdom)Allies with France to drive Austrians out of Northern ItalyFunds Garibaldi's rebels in Southern Italy
ItalyGiuseppe Garibaldi - led Italian nationalist army called Red ShirtsCaptures Sicily and unites Southern ItalyAdds land he conquers to Sardinia
ItalyJoint Italian army conquers Papal States (last to be added)Rome becomes capital (1871)Church keeps Vatican City
ItalyItaly is unified and Rome becomes its official capital in 1871.Victor Emmanuel II is the first official king of all of Italy.
ItalyProblems after unification: Different ways of lifeNorthern Italy IndustrialSouthern Italy AgriculturalDifferent dialects of ItalianEconomic problems
GermanyPre - Unification: German Confederation dominated by Prussia under Kaiser Wilhelm I Prussia - all German, strong army, industrialized
GermanyOtto von Bismarck - Prime Minister of PrussiaRealpolitik Bismarcks ideology Achieve / hold power by any means necessary "blood and iron"
Otto von Bismarck
GermanyAustro-Prussian WarPrussia takes territory from Austria and unifies Northern Germany
GermanyFranco-Prussian War (1870 1871)Bismarck faked a telegram between Wilhelm and Napoleon III of France to start a warGerman kingdoms unite against France
GermanyPrussian army lays siege to Paris and defeats the FrenchAfter the war, the German Empire is officially declaredBismarck Chancellor of Germany
Otto von Bismarck
UnificationWith Italy and Germanys rise to power, Europes Balance of Power is destroyed