nationalism nationalism chapter 4. 1. introduction -nationalism became the most significant force...
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- Nationalism Nationalism Chapter 4
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- 1. Introduction -Nationalism became the most significant force for self-determination and unification in Europe of the 1800s. -It fed the desire of different groups to be free of rulers from large empires and form there own countries -Nationalism will result in the formation of Italy, Germany and various Latin American countries -It will also bring about the destruction of the Austrian and Ottoman Empire
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- 2. Italian Nationalism A. Beginnings A. Beginnings -During the reign of Napoleon, Italy was unified for a brief time. -However, The Congress of Vienna divided Italy into smaller states and territories that were controlled by Austria and Spain -Italians wanted to free themselves of foreign control and once again become a unified nation
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- Unification Movements - Nationalist began to form secret societies throughout Italy. - Unification was the goal of groups such as the Young Italy Movement led by Giuseppe Mazzini who called for the establishment of a republic. - King Victor Emmanuel II, who led the kingdom of Sardinia wanted to be a model for Italian nationalism.
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- Pg. 2 - Count Camillo Cavour, a prominent Italian Nationalist, was the Prime Minister of Sardinia. - His movement for Italian unification was known as Risorgimento.
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- 3. The Crimean War - France and Great Britain declared war on Russia in an effort to stop the Russians from taking over the weaker Ottoman Empire. - Sardinia entered the war allied with France and Great Britain, in hopes of achieving assistance in unifying Italy. - In 1858, Sardinia and France planned to attack Austria.
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- 4. War with Austria - In 1859, Sardinia aided nationalist revolts in the Austrian controlled northern Italian lands of Lomardy and Venetia. - Austria used military troops to stop the revolts, Sardinia and France sent troops to help the nationalists. - A treaty was signed between Austria and Sardinia in which Sardinia gained control of Italian territory.
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- 5. Nationalism in Southern Italy - In 1869, with support of Sardinia, Garibaldi formed a Nationalist Army known as the Red Shirts. - Their goal was to attack the two kingdoms of two Sicilies and form a republic. - Garibaldi then attacked Rome and the Papal that were under control of France. - Finally, when France withdrew from Rome in 1870, the citizens of Rome voted to join the kingdom of Italy. - With the joining of Rome, the entire Italian peninsula was united.
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- 6. Nationalism in Germany -The Congress of Vienna in 1815 created the Germany Confederation, a loose organization of 39 separate states each having its own laws, currency, and ruler -King William I wanted Prussia to become a military power in Europe and wanted to unify the German states under one ruler -He appointed Otto von Bismarck as Prime Minister to build a powerful war machine
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- A. Blood and Iron -Bismarck believed in a policy known as Blood and Iron which meant strengthening the military and using warfare to reach their goal of unifying Germany
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- B. Obstacles to Unification of Germany 1.Austria represented the most serious obstacle to Germanys unification because they feared competition in Central Europe 2.Other European countries (France and Russia) feared a united Germany because they did not want to upset the balance of power in Europe 3.Some smaller German states wanted to protect their customs and traditions, and did not want to be absorbed into a large German nation controlled by Prussia
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- C. Steps toward Unification 1) War over Schleswig-Holstein -Bismarck formed an uneasy alliance with -Bismarck formed an uneasy alliance with Austria to gain control of the areas of Austria to gain control of the areas of Schleswig-Holstein from Denmark. A bitter Schleswig-Holstein from Denmark. A bitter dispute occurred after the war between dispute occurred after the war between Prussia and Austria over the newly won Prussia and Austria over the newly won territories territories
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- C. Steps toward Unification (Pg.2) 2. War with Austria -7 Weeks War where Prussia easily defeated Austria. Prussia formed the North -7 Weeks War where Prussia easily defeated Austria. Prussia formed the North German Confederation. Joined Western and Eastern parts of Prussia German Confederation. Joined Western and Eastern parts of Prussia 3. Franco-Prussian War - Southern German Confederation Feared - Southern German Confederation Feared Prussian control (religious differences) sought an Prussian control (religious differences) sought an alliance with France. Dispute over Spain led to a alliance with France. Dispute over Spain led to a war with France and Prussia. Win by Prussia led war with France and Prussia. Win by Prussia led control over S. German Confederation control over S. German Confederation
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- D. The New Germany -William I was proclaimed Kaiser and appointed Bismarck as chancellor -The newly created German empire was called the Second Reich or Empire -The leaders of Germany were determined to make Germany a major commercial, colonial and military power of Europe
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- 3. Latin America A. Social Classes 1. Peninsulares - People who were born in Spain - People who were born in Spain -Could only hold high govt offices -Could only hold high govt offices 2. Creoles -Spaniards born in Latin America -Spaniards born in Latin America -Could hold medium level jobs -Could hold medium level jobs 3. Mestizos -Persons of mixed European and Latin America -Persons of mixed European and Latin America 4. Mulattos -Persons of mixed European and African ancestry -Persons of mixed European and African ancestry 5. Enslaved Africans -Bottom of Social Ladder -Bottom of Social Ladder
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- B. Independence Movements -The peninsulares and creoles controlled land, wealth and power in the Spanish colonies colonies -Ideas of liberty, equality and democratic rule from Europe found their way across the Atlantic to the American colonies the Atlantic to the American colonies -Most of the population resented the domination of European rule
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- C. Revolution in Haiti -Nearly 500,000 enslaved Africans worked on the plantations in Haiti -Tossaint LOuverture, a freed slave, led a revolt of 100,000 slaves against the plantation owners -By 1801, the revolutionaries took control of Haiti and freed all slaves -Even after LOuverture was seized by French troops and sent to prison in France, the revolution continued -In 1804, Haiti became the first African colony in Latin America to free itself from European rule
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- D. South American Revolutions -Napoleons takeover of Spain triggered revolts in the Spanish colonies of South America -Led by the Creoles who did not want to be ruled by the French -Led by two Generals, Simon Bolivar, from Venezuela and Jose de San Martin, from Argentina, eventually led to all South American colonies free from European control Argentina, eventually led to all South American colonies free from European control
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- E. Mexican Revolution -In Mexico, the Natives and the Mestizos played the leading role in the search for freedom -Under Generals Miquel Hidalgo and Jose Morelas, the revolutionaries fought for their freedoms -Eventually, the Creoles joined the fight for independence after the lost their power in the colonies -In 1821, Mexico gained their independence from Spain
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- F. Life after Independence -Political independence meant little for most citizens in these newly established countries -The majority of people remained poor laborers caught up in a cycle of poverty -Many Latin American army leaders controlled these nations as military dictators known as caudillos -Wealthy landowners supported these leaders because they protected their plantations -Voting rights and political powers were restricted to the upper classes -These Latin American countries still relied on European countries for manufactured goods and borrowed money to build infrastructure, (roads, hospitals, schools, factories) -Many countries could not pay their loans and many foreign European companies gained control of these industries (Economic colonialism) (Economic colonialism)
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- G. Mexican Civil War -These issues caused problems in Mexico -In 1876, a new dictator, Diaz, took control of Mexico -In the early 1900s, Mexicans began to protest Diazs harsh rule -Francisco Madero, a wealthy landowner, called for an armed revolution -This started a series of local uprisings led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata -The Mexican Civil War resulted in over a million deaths -In 1917, a new Constitution was put into place that promoted education, land reforms and workers rights
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