unit 3 latin america. section 1: the physical geography of latin america

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Unit 3 Latin America

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The Physical Geography of Latin America

Unit 3 Latin AmericaSection 1:The Physical Geography of Latin AmericaMexico

Mountains dominate MexicoSierra Madre OccidentalSierra Madre OrientalSierra Madre del Sur

Central Plateau: makes up more than half of the countrys areaMost of Mexicos people live in the plateau regionCentral AmericaCentral America is an isthmusIsthmus: a narrow strip of land that has water on both sides and joins two larger bodies of land.Narrow plains run along the coastsBetween the plains are mountainsMore then a dozen (12) of these mountains are active volcanoes

The Panama CanalHuman made waterwayStretches across the Isthmus of PanamaPurpose is to shorten travel time between the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean

The CaribbeanThe Caribbean is made up of two types of islandsSmaller islands are made up of coral (tiny sea animals that over hundreds of years meld together to create a rocklike substance)Larger islands are the tops of huge underwater mountains

The Caribbean BreakdownThe Greater Antilles:Larger islands (Cuba Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica)The Lesser Antilles:An archipelago: a group of islandsFrom the Virgin Islands down to TrinidadThe BahamasAnother archipelago

South AmericaAndes Mountains run along the western coast.2nd highest mountain range in the worldWorlds longest mountain system

South AmericaHighlands are located in Brazil, Venezuela, Guyana

The Brazilian Highlands end in an escarpmentSteep cliff at the edge of a plateau with a lowland area below

South AmericaThe Amazon River Basin contains the largest tropical rain forest in the worldThis rainforest covers more than 1/3 of South America

South AmericaPampas are flat grassland regions that are very similar to the Great Plains of the U.S.Located in Argentina and Uruguay

South AmericaPatagonia

Located in the southernmost part of Argentina and Chile

Made up of the Andes Mountains, plains, plateaus, and glaciers

South America from Space

Rivers and LakesAmazon Riversecond longest river in the worldFlows 4,000 miles from Peru across BrazilContains about 20% of all the fresh water on EarthCollects more than 1,000 tributariesTributaries: the rivers and streams that flow into a larger river.

Rivers and LakesThe Rio de la Plata is made up of the Parana, Paraguay and Uruguay rivers.Form the 2nd largest river system in Latin America

The 3 rivers flow into an estuaryAn area where river currents and ocean tides meet

Rivers and Lakes

Venezuela has the Orinoco River and Lake Maracaibo

Lake Titicaca is located in the Andes mountainsHighest lake in the world

Section 2: Latin America Climate and Natural VegetationA Varied Climate and Vegetation Latin Americas broad range of climate, vegetation due to 3 factors:it spans great distances on either side of the equatorit has big changes in elevation due to the mountainsits climates affected by both warm Atlantic, cold Pacific currents

Tropical Climate Zones Tropical Wet Rain forestsdense forests with different species of treeshot and rainy all year unique ecosystemcommunity of plants, animals living in balance Largest is Brazils Amazon rain forest with 2 million square miles2,500 types of Amazon treesanimals include anaconda, jaguar, piranha Tropical Wet and Dry hot with seasonal rainSavannas found in Brazil, Colombia, Argentina

Dry Climate Zones Semiarid Dry climate with some rainhome to vast, grass-covered plains or desert shrubsfound in Mexico, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina Desert Found in north Mexico, coast of Peru, north Chiles Atacama Desertparts of Argentinas southern Patagonia are desert Vegetation is mostly shrubs growing in gravel or sand

Mid-Latitude Climate Zones Humid Subtropical Rainy winters and hot, humid summers; varied vegetationparts of Paraguay, Uruguay, south Brazil and Bolivia, north Argentina Mediterranean Hot, dry summers and cool, moist wintersvegetation is chaparral (drought-resistant trees) this is the climate of part of Chile along the west coastclimate similar to that of California

Mid-Latitude Climate ZonesMarine West Coast Cool, rainy winters and mild, rainy summers; forest vegetationoccurs in southern Chile and Argentinasimilar to the climate of Oregon or Washington Highlands Varies from moderate to cold due to elevation, wind, sun, landscapefound in mountains of Mexico and South America

A Blending of CulturesHuman Geography of Latin America

28Mexico Political

29Mexico Physical

30Central america Political

31Central america physical

32Caribbean Islands political

33Caribbean islands physical

34South America political

35South america physical

36Section 3: MexicoPlaces & TermsSpanish Conquest: The conquering of the Native Americans by the Spanish.Tenochtitlan: Ancient Aztec capitalMestizo: People of mixed Spanish & Native American heritageMaquiladoras: Factories in Mexico that turn imported materials into finished products for export.NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement

37Section 3: MexicoNative Americans & the Spanish ConquestThe rich fabric of native life in Mexico was torn apart by the Spanish conquest. In 1519 Hernando Cortes landed on the coast of Mexico & marched until he reached the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan (present day Mexico City). By 1521 he & his soldiers had conquered the Aztecs.Until 1821 Mexico remained apart of the Spanish Empire.Spanish influence still remains in Mexico with its language & Catholic religion.Mexico has large mestizo population people of mixed Spanish & Native American heritage.

38Cortes route to conquering the aztecs

39Section 3: MexicoEconomics: Cities & FactoriesMexico continues to struggle with two main economic challenges.1. Attempting to close a long-standing gap between the rich & the poor. (Haves & Have Nots)2. Attempting to develop a modern industrial economy.Many people are moving to the cities seeking jobs, largely abandoning their farming roots.Most factories or Maquiladoras are located along the border of the US. (Why? Think NAFTA)

40Section 3: Central America & The CaribbeanPlaces & TermsCultural hearth: Heartland or place of origin of a major culture.Panama Canal: Ship canal cut through Panama connecting the Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean. Reggae: Music developed in Jamaica in the 1960s. Blends African, Caribbean, & American music often dealing with social and religious problems.

41Section 3: Central America & The Caribbean Central America is know as a cultural hearth as well as a crossroads.The Mayan Indians built a great civilization that spread throughout the region. What exactly happened to the Mayan people still remains very much a mystery.

42Section 3: Central America & The caribbeanAlthough Central America was ruled by Spain, the Caribbean was settled & claimed by many European powers.In addition, with disease brought over by the Europeans that killed many of the native peoples, Africans were brought over to work as slaves further blending the cultural exchange.Sugar remains an important crop in the Caribbean to this day as well as citrus fruits.The Panama Canal connects the two great oceans making Panama a crossroads of world trade.

43Section 4: Spanish-Speaking south AmericaPlaces & TermsInca: People of South America who built a civilization in the Andes Mountains. (conquered by Francisco Pizarro in 1533)Quechua: Language of the Inca Empire. Now spoken in the Andes highlands.Mercosur: Economic common market that began operating in the southern cone of South America in 1995. (think NAFTA for South America)

44Section 4: Spanish-Speaking south AmericaOne of the greatest civilizations of the Americas arose in the rugged Andes Mountains of Peru. They were later conquered by Francisco Pizarro in 1533.

http://www.history.com/shows/mankind-the-story-of-all-of-us/videos/mankind-the-story-of-all-of-us-rise-of-the-incas#45Section 4: Spanish-Speaking south americaThe Mercosur Trade GroupEconomic common market that began in South America in 1995.Goals include:Make member economies more stableIncrease trade within the regionChannel some profits to groups who need it most

46Section 4 South AmericaPopulation density and distributionMost of the population lives on the countries coast linesSao Paulo, Rio de Janerio, and Bueno Aires ranked in the top 15 largest cities in the world

Section 4: BrazilPlaces & TermsTreaty of Tordesillas: Treaty between Spain & Portugal in 1494 that gave Portugal control over the land that is present day Brazil.Carnival: The most colorful feast day in Brazil.(think Mardi Gras)Samba: Brazilian dance with African Influences.


Section 4: BrazilThe Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) gave Portugal control over much of the land that became present-day Brazil. South America became a continent divided into the Spanish speaking west & the Portuguese-speaking east.

51Section 4: BrazilBrazilian Life TodayThe most colorful feast day in Brazil is Carnival. Floats and parade through the streets of Rio de Janeiro and people dance to the music of the samba.There is a widening gap between the rich & the poor much like other Latin American countries resulting in crime waves and drug abuse.