unit 3: latin america human geography of latin america

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Unit 3: Latin America Human Geography of Latin America

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  • Unit 3: Latin America Human Geography of Latin America
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  • Mexico
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  • Colonialism and Independence Mexico was originally occupied by native peoples including the Toltecs Maya Aztecs Spanish Conquest 1519 Cortes takes over
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  • Colonialism and Independence Mexico was under control of the Spanish empire Resources: Gold, silver Gained independence in 1821 under Agustin de Iturbide, who proclaimed he was emperor over the new country
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  • Colonialism and Independence Things changed later in the century: Benito Juarez led reforms, became president Separation of church and state Educational opportunities Distribution of land Change (both positive and negative) continued through the 20 th century
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  • Colonialism and Independence One-Party Rule 1929: Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) Introduced democracy and gave much political stability to the country Eventually fell apart due to corruption WHY???
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  • A Meeting of Cultures Aztecs and Spanish Capital: Tenochtitlan Beautiful temples, palaces, gardens, lakes, canals Spanish destroyed most of the capital, replaced it with Mexico City Spanish brought language and religion
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  • A Meeting of Cultures Mexican Painters Long heritage of art and architecture Public art became common in the 1900s Jose Orozco, Diego Rivera, Juan OGorman Blend of European and Native styles/influence
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  • A Meeting of Cultures Architecture Native Americans constructed large, ornate temples Spanish built beautiful cathedrals
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  • Economics Issues: Gap between rich and poor Needs to modernize their economy to compete with 1 st world countries
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  • Economics Population in the cities More people are moving to the cities for opportunities
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  • Economics Oil and Manufacturing Gulf of Mexico and oil reserves $$$ from oil has helped to pay for development Maquiladoras NAFTA
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  • Life Today Emigration Good or bad? Work and Education Job shortages due to population increases More children attending school Education the key to equality and raising people out of poverty?
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  • Central America and the Caribbean
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  • Native and Colonial Central America Cultural Hearth-origins of specific ideas Heartland/place of origin of a major culture Mayan empire originated here No idea why they disappeared/left Built cities and temples Ruled by a god-king Center for religious ceremony and trade
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  • Native and Colonial Central America Spanish conquered the Aztecs and then moved into Central America Held control into the 1800s United Provinces of Central America (freedom from Mexican/Spanish control) By late 1830s, United Provinces had divided into separate nations
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  • Native and Colonial Caribbean Caribbean was settled and ruled over by multiple European countries This colonization started with Christopher Columbuss discovery of the Caribbean in 1492
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  • Native and Colonial Caribbean Colonization was brutal on the natives Forced labor Very poor treatment Disease Death To replace the dwindling native workforce, Spanish brought in African slaves
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  • Caribbean Independence Independence movement in Latin America started with a slave revolt in Caribbean Haiti 18 th century 1790s Toussaint LOuverture led the rebellion and took over the government By 1804 Haiti had achieved independence Other islands began earning independence after
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  • Cultural Blends Central America Native American, Spanish Language, religion Land use Caribbean African, Native American, various European influences Slavery left a legacy Catholic and Protestant, Vodoo, Rastafarianism Spanish, French, English, Dutch, Danish
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  • Economics Farming and Trade Sugar cane Bananas, citrus fruits Coffee Spices Commercial farming on plantations
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  • Economics Where do people live? 30-40 million people Rural areas due to agricultural economies Urban areas: jobs in tourism
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  • Culture, Tourism, Jobs Music Reggae, calypso Calypso is a blend of African, Spanish, and Caribbean influences Tourism High unemployment due to more people moving to cities for jobs Tourism is one of the most important industries Informal economy-takes place outside official channels Street vending, shining shoes
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  • Spanish Speaking South America
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  • Conquest and End of Spanish Rule Inca Andes Mountains of Peru Advanced Civilization Expanded their empire by conquering other tribes By 1500: empire extended 2,500 miles. Built over 20,000 miles of road
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  • Conquest and End of Spanish Rule Spanish Conquest Wanted gold and silver that existed in Inca empire Forced natives to work in mines, farms, ranches Spain passed laws to protect natives, didnt work in practice Inca families destroyed because they were forced out of their cities and on to plantations Quechua language was damaged due to Spanish being dominant language, but today many Inca still speak it
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  • Conquest and End of Spanish Rule Independence Movements First half of 19 th century Simon Bolivar, Jose de San Martin Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia Argentina, Chile, Peru
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  • Conquest and End of Spanish Rule Government Oligarchy and military rule existed prior to independence Authoritarian rule existed for some time before democracy Many issues exist still today
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  • Culture Literature Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Colombia Music Popular music and folk music Drums, guitars, marimbas, maracas, flutes Indian, African, European blend Arts Craftwork Pottery, textiles, glasswork, metal
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  • Economics Wide variety of products based on countrys climate and resources: North: crops and oil West: fishing, minerals South: grain, livestock, soybeans, cotton
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  • Education Literacy rates Strong support for higher education Some countries, like Chile, have laws in place to encourage education. Turmoil and political unrest often disrupt education.
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  • Brazil
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  • History Colonization of South America was done through Spain and Portugal Treaty of Tordesillas Portugal gained control over land that became Brazil Spain gained control over other areas
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  • History Brazils indigenous people made up hundreds of tribes and shared multiple language groups. Portuguese interests in Brazil were for gold and silver, neither could be found. Instead: cleared land to set up sugar plantations
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  • History Portuguese used the natives to work on the plantations When disease killed many, they brought African slaves to the area Independence: Colony: 1500-1822 Brazilians pushed for independence through petition and finally the nation became free.
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  • Culture Large amount of immigrants means a variety of cultural influences Catholic religion Unique architecture
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  • Economics Industrial power Abundant minerals Natural gas Electricity (hydropower) Automobile industry
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  • Economics Migration (urban) Big gap between rich and poor Many people have moved to the cities in the hopes of job opportunities Does this always work out?
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  • Economics Migration (rural) Many moved into the interior to develop resources Fertile grasslands provide great areas for farming and grazing
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  • Life Today Carnival- colorful feast day Floats, music, party in the streets Dance: samba Capoeira- martial art and dance