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Trust Elevation


  • 1. OASIS Trust Elevation Elevate Trust in Electronic Identities International Cloud Symposium Washington DC October 2012Abbie Barbir, Ph.DCo-Chair OASIS Trust Elevation TC
  • 2. Goal OASIS Trust Elevation TC Goal is to define a set of methods or standardized protocols that service providers may use to elevate the trust in an electronic identity presented to them for authentication purposes 2
  • 3. Why are we doing this work? Few consumers have high LOA-credentials. User Name and Password is not good enough More organizations look to implement systems that require authentication at higher Levels of Assurance When dealing with consumers and citizens, there is a clear need for dynamic authentication a customer should only be asked to do multi-factor authentication when they want to do a high value transaction, not as a prerequisite to visiting a website. There is an increased interest in transaction-based assurance: authentication based on the necessary current conditions of specified, validated attributes and agreements. Use of a step-up approach to multi-factor authentication. Recommendations by the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) and the highly publicized breaches in 2011 have made trust elevation a more urgent topic. Responding to suggestions from the public sector, including the U.S. National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace (NSTIC). 3
  • 4. Approach1. Phase I: Catalog of Trust Elevation Methods Create a comprehensive list of methods being used currently to authenticate identities online to the degree necessary to transact business where material amounts of economic value or personally identifiable data are involved. Status: phase is completed Committee Note pending publication2. Phase II: Analysis of Trust Elevation Methods Analysis of identified methods to determine their ability to provide a service provider with assurance of the submitters identity sufficient for elevation between each pair of assurance levels, to transact business where material amounts of economic value or personally identifiable data are involved. Status: phase ending, final stages of delivering work3. Phase III: Establish Trust Elevation Protocol Propose a protocol for Trust Elevation Status: phase starting 4
  • 5. Definition of Trust ElevationTrust elevation: Increasing the strength of trust by adding factors from the same or different categories of trust elevation methods that dont have the same vulnerabilities. There are five categories of trust elevation methods who you are, what you know, what you have, what you typically do and the context. What you typically do consists of behavioral habits that are independent of physical biometric attributes. Context includes, but is not limited to, location, time, party, prior relationship, social relationship and source. Elevation can be within the classic four X.1254 ITU-T LoA (ISO 29115 (NIST 800-063)) 5
  • 6. Categories of Trust Elevation Methods Who you are biometrics, behavioral attributes What you know shared secrets, public and relationship knowledge What you have devices, tokens - hard, soft, OTP What you typically do described by ITU-T x1254 behavioral habits that are independent of physical biometric attributes Context e.g. location, time, party, prior relationship, social relationship and source 6
  • 7. Levels of Assurance Trust Elevation Paths between Levels of Assurance 7
  • 8. Trust Elevation Method List Methods sorted by trust elevation method category What you are Biometric -- use of distinctive measurements about your physical body and or your behavior that are unique Physical Biometric considered immutable and unique Facial recognition Iris Scan Retinal Scan Fingerprint Palm Scan Voice Liveliness biometric factors include: Pulse. CAPTCHA; Temperature. Behavioral Biometric -- persons physical behavioral activity patterns Keyboard signature Voice 8
  • 9. Trust Elevation Method List What you know User Name and Password (UN/PW) Knowledge Based Authentication (KBA) User is asked one or more (sometimes 3 to 5) challenge questions User-data procured at enrollment time Static KBA Questions and answers that do not change Dynamic KBA questions that are user-specific and/or change over time and/or the answers to the questions change over time (e.g., asking the value of the customers last VISA transaction) 9
  • 10. Trust Elevation Method List What you have End Point Identity Landline number; Mobile phone number and or SIM and or OS; IP address, router, provider; Cookie, OS, browser, chip. Token Hardware tokens Proprietary tokens USB tokens Smart Cards Mobile phone and or SIM. Software tokens Digital certificates Cookies 10
  • 11. Trust Elevation Method List What you have Out of Band User calls service provider from a registered phone; Response to a phone call from the service provider; Response to an email from the service provider; Response to an SMS message from the service provider; Response to a mobile application transaction initiated by the service provider; Response to a post card; Response to a letter, registered or otherwise. One Time Password (OTP) Email; Mobile phone voice message; Mobile phone SMS message; Mobile phone application; Landline voice message; Mail (postcard, letter, registered mail, etc.); Proprietary hardware token with password generation capability. 11
  • 12. Trust Elevation Method List What You Typically Do -- an individuals repeated behaviors or behavioral habits Browsing patterns (order in which pages are accessed, duration of access, links accessed, etc.); Time of access; Type of access, etc. 12
  • 13. Trust Elevation Method List Context -- attributes relevant to the user or situation Location; Time of access; Frequency of access; Party; Prior relationship ; Social relationship; Source and endpoint identity attributes such as Date of last virus scan IP address Subscriber identity module (SIM) Device basic input/ouput system (BIOS) Virus scan software version CallerID Cookie (presence and or contents); Multi-channel combination; Credential lifecycle attributes; Certificate binding and or other chain of trust attributes; Secure device with user specific disk allocation. 13
  • 14. Method Examples (Use Cases) Reuse of Primary Authenticator Method Example Customer Retention Method Example Cloud Access Method Example Static KBA Method Example Session Elevation to Level of Identity Proofing Method Example Hub Provider of Pseudonymous Identity Method Example Step-Up Authorization Method Example Multi-channel by Phone Method Example Generic KBA Method Example Address Verification Service Method Example Split Large (Risky) Transactions into Multiple Smaller Transactions Method Example Use of Tokenized Device/Network Attributes Method Example Trust Elevation by Hard Token (OTP Generator) Method Example Multi-Attribute-Based Trus