the history of the chosen people descendants of israelites (aka hebrews) around the time of the...

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  • The History of the Chosen People Descendants of Israelites (aka Hebrews) Around the time of the exile and following it, they became known as Jews, and their religion became known as Judaism, because their country was Judah Founders: Abraham and Sarah
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  • Classical Judaism End of first century seventh century The destruction of the second temple The Jews of the classical lived under the threat of Roman political oppression, which sometimes had violent consequences. The Romans issued a decree forbidding Jews to inhabit the region of Palestine. In the fourth century, Christianity arose to become the official religion of the roman empire A few centuries later, many Jews found themselves living under Muslim rule. During this period, a majority of Jews lived in the Diaspora. Diaspora is aka Dispersion- it refers to the Jews living outside their homeland
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  • Medieval Judaism This period spans from the 8 th century to the middle of the 18 th century Primarily under Muslim control and free to worship In some areas Jews were forced to pay taxes Jews established a large middle class Christian control European Areas Jews became successful money lenders Brought about resentment and persecution Sons of crucifiers Intentionally rejected Christ
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  • Medieval Judaism: Mysticism Jewish mysticism or Kabbalah teaches that God can best be known with the heart, through love. God can be found by looking inward The Zohar is the most famous text of Jewish mysticism Kabbalists observe the commandments of the Torah
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  • Modern Judaism 18 th Century- the period of the Enlightenment (or age of reason) Filled with great change Out with the Monarchies/ In with rule by the people Hasidism arose during this period. Hasidism means pious It draws from some of the mystical teachings of the kabbalist tradition It emphasizes personal relationships with God and the community, rather than study of the Torah and strict observance of its commandments. The center of each Hasidic community is the leadership of the zaddik, a holy man who is believed to have an especially close relationship with God
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  • Modern Judaism cont. Zionism Arose in late 19 th century Committed to the re- establishment of a Jewish homeland (Zion biblical for Jerusalem) Zionism refers generally to the support of Israel Feel that the only way to ensure the safety of the Jewish people is to have its own state.
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  • Modern Judaism cont. Throughout the centuries Jews faced persecution- known as anti-Semitism The Holocaust is an event/example of anti- Semitism Holocaust Hebrew for mass destruction Persecution of the Jews by German Nazis from 1933-1945 Lives lost: An estimated 6 million Jews Many Jews looked at the holocaust as punishment for wrong doings. Another response, such as the Zionist- was to support the State of Israel. Israel was granted statehood in 1948 An area that is always in turmoil because the Palestinians also claim the area to be sacred
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  • TaNakh Gods revelation of the divine will to the Chosen People is recorded in the Hebrew Bible. The Hebrew bible is Judaism sacred scripture Hebrew Bible contains 3 parts: 1.Torah 2.Prophets 3.Writings In Hebrew, these words begin with the letters T, N, and k referred as Tanakh Hebrew Bible same as Tanakh The contents of the Hebrew Bible are also found in the Christian OT But the books are named and ordered differently
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  • Torah Means instruction Translated as the law as well Refers to the will of God as revealed to humankind Refers to the first five books of the Bible
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  • Torah cont. Aka the Pentateuch Meaning 5 books The Torah contains the law 10 Commandments Other 613 laws What Jews are expected to do Every synagogue contains a scroll of the entire Torah Kept in a vessel called an ark All stand when the doors of the ark are open It is buried after it becomes old The Eternal light A lamp hangs above the ark The light is always burning, as a symbol of Gods presence
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  • Oral Torah The bible or written Torah is complemented by religious teachings of the oral Torah Oral Torah refers to the material taught and transmitted by Judaisms great rabbis of antiquity. These teachings were eventually written down Oral Torah is the interpretation/explanation of the written Torah
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  • Mishnah The Mishnah is one form of Oral Torah It means repetition It contains teachings that were formulated and transmitted orally by rabbis Rabbis are teachers of Torah or leader of Jewish worship Most important text of the Oral Torah
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  • Talmud It means study It is based on the Mishnah Small portions of the Mishnah are cited usually page after page It presents a grand scheme of interpretation of Gods will, blending together the oral and written forms of Torah (Torah and Mishnah) TALMUD IN THE MAKING EXERCISE