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  • South Asia Notes

  • CountriesSouth Asia is often called a subcontinent- a very large landmass that is smaller than a continentBangladeshBhutanIndiaMaldivesNepalPakistanSri Lanka

  • India Taj Mahal

  • Pakistan

  • Nepal

  • Mumbai, India

  • Bangladesh

  • The Maldives

  • The Maldives

  • Bhutan

  • Sri Lanka

  • Mountains & Plateaus.HimalayasPangaea theory that the earth was once a giant landmassWhen the continents broke apart, Africa rammed into Asia causing the land to crumple up forming the HimalayasOver 1000 miles longContains Mount EverestWorlds highest mountain29,028 feet highLies on border between Nepal & China

  • Himalayas Roof top of the world.Formed by the collision of tectonic platesEverest is the highest peak

  • Everest

  • Mountains & Plateaus ContKarakoram MountainsHindu Kush MountainsVindhya MountainsSeparate north and south IndiaDifferent cultures in these two regions due to the separation

  • Mountains & Plateaus contEastern & Western GhatsDeccan PlateauForm a triangle at Southern IndiaWestern Ghats and Eastern Ghats are mountains along each coastThe Deccan Plateau is in between the mountains

  • Rivers.The major rivers start in the Himalaya MountainsRivers carry fertile soil washed down from the mountainsWhen rivers overflow, deposit alluvial soil (fertile soil from the silt) onto the flood plainIndusBrahmaputraGanges

  • Indo-Gangetic PlainIndo-Gangetic Plain- alluvial plain that has been created by the flooding of the Indus and Ganges RiversLargest alluvial plain in the worldAlluvial plain - flat landform created by the deposition of sediment over a long period of time by one or more rivers.

  • Deserts.Thar Desert (Great Indian Desert) lies in India & PakistanDry monsoon winds keeps desert arid and hot

  • Monsoons.Monsoons are seasonal winds that greatly affect the climateBetween October-May- winter winds blow from the north and northeast and are dryBetween June-September- summer winds blow from the south and southwest over the Indian Ocean and bring warm, moist airHeavy rains during this timePeople depend on the heavy rains for farmingSometimes the heavy rains can cause disastrous floods

  • Cyclones.Cyclone- storm marked by high winds and heavy rainAffects Bangladeshstorm surges waters wash ashore like a very high tidecause major disasters by flooding farmland and also causing rivers to floodIn 1991, a cyclone killed 131,000 people

  • Population.India is the 2nd most populated country in the world (1.1 billion people)Highest population growth rate in South AsiaImproved health care and sanitationLower death ratePopulation will double in 40 years if it continues to grow

  • Population.High Population DensityDensely populated areas:Along the fertile Indo-Gangetic PlainAlong monsoon watered coastsNear where rice is grownBangladeshCountry with the highest population density in the worldProblem - difficult to produce enough foodLess densely populated areasDeccan PlateauThar DesertMountains

  • Urbanization.70% of people live in rural villages in IndiaIt is increasing because South Asians are migrating to cities in search of better jobs and higher wagesLargest cities in IndiaCalcutta (3rd largest in world)Bombay (9th largest in world)Delhi (14th largest in world)Cities are:OvercrowdedPollutedPutting a strain on public facilities like schools and hospitals

  • History.Early CivilizationsCivilization began around the Indus river around 2500 B.C.Aryans moved into northern India from central AsiaSpoke an early form of SanskritAryans come into this region and left their ideas in Vedas:1. four books about Aryan religious beliefsdivided Aryan society into 3 classesNoblesPriestsordinary peopleeventually developed into the caste systemDuring Aryan time, Siddhartha Gautama taught concepts of Buddhism

  • HistoryIslamic EmpiresA.D. 1000 Islamic empires began attacking India1398 Timur attackedBabur then took over most of northern India and founded the Mughal EmpireDuring this time Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal

  • European Colonization.British began trading with India in the 1490sFormed the East India CompanyBecame the most powerful trading corporationBuilt trading posts and forts in strategic locations

  • Sepoy RebellionBy 1857 British East India Company controlled most of IndiaSepoys- Indian soldiers under command of BritishIn 1857 sepoys rebelled against their British commandersSepoy resented the British trying to (force) impose Christianity & European customs on themThe Sepoys were not successful but it did force the British to tighten its control of IndiaSent a viceroy to take over Indias territoryIndia became a British colony

  • European Colonization.jewel in the crown for the British empireA viceroy is a governor ruling as a royal representative to take over a territoryThe viceroy gained control and alliances with other Indian statesIndian NationalismNationalism is the desire for self rule

  • European colonization.To try to stop more unrest in India, the British spend lots of money on Indias economy developmentBuilt paved roadsBuilt railway systemInstalled telegraph linesDug irrigation canalsEstablished schools and universities

  • Problems Under British ControlBritish officials discriminated against IndiansForced Indians to change their ancient waysForced farmers to grow cotton instead of wheatBritish textile industries needed cottonLack of wheat led to food shortages that killed millions of IndiansIndians began to demand more rightsFormed Indian National CongressPolitical group that led to the long struggle for independence

  • Independence for India.Indians wanted independence and equalityMohandas Gandhi led the independence movementEncouraged Indians to boycott British goodsLed peaceful marches

  • India & Pakistan.Following WWII, Britain granted India independenceHostility between Hindus and Muslims grew1947 India was partitioned into 2 countriesIndiaPakistan1971 East Pakistan broke away from West Pakistan forming Bangladesh

  • Government.India is the worlds largest democracyIndias government is based on British modelParliamentPrime ministerPakistan has a president who is elected indirectly by members of the legislatureBhutan and Nepal are monarchies

  • Language.Many different languagesIndo-Aryan Language familyMost languages spoken in Pakistan, India and Bangladesh fall in this language family - group of related languages that have all developed from one earlier language

  • Language.Major languages spoken:India- Hindi & EnglishPakistan- UrduBangladesh- BengaliNepal- NepaliSri Lanka- Sinhalese

  • Religion.Indias government is secularThe major religions are:HinduismBuddhismIslamIndia and Nepal - Hinduism80% of India is HinduPakistan, Bangladesh, & Maldives IslamSri Lanka & Bhutan - BuddhismTwo of the worlds major religions began in India - Hinduism and Buddhism

  • Hinduism.Believe that:Every individual must live according to his or her own dharma ones moral duty in lifeKarma positive or negative forces caused by a persons actionsReincarnation repeated rebirth of ones soul in different formsThose who fulfill their dharma earn good karma and may be reborn as persons of higher statusMany gods and goddessesReincarnation and karma maintain the caste system

  • Caste System.caste system group of people who are born into a certain position in society4 major castes:Brahmins priests and intellectualsKshatriyas warriorsVaisyas traders and merchantsSudras farmers and laborersDalits the oppressedBorn into caste & cannot move into anotherIndian constitution abolished caste system but still remains large part of daily life

  • Hinduism Distribution

  • Buddhism.Siddhartha Gautama was a princeHe went on a pilgrimage - religious journeyAfter years of spiritual searching and meditation, he became known as Buddha (or the Awakened One)

  • Buddha.Buddha taught:People suffer because they are overly attached to material thingsTo escape this suffering which leads to endless rebirth, one must live by certain rulesThe rules include:Thinking clearlyActing wiselyBehaving kindly towards othersBuddha taught guidelines so people enter nirvana - state of great insight, calm, and happiness

  • Sikhism.Founded in the 1500s by Guru NanakCombined Hinduism and Islam into one religionMonotheistic - believe in one GodHindu ideas of karma and reincarnationMost Sikhs live in northwest IndiaThe khanda the sikh symbol

  • Jainism.Began in the 500s BC by a young Hindu teacher MahaviraBelieve in non-violenceEvery living thing has a soul3 million followers in IndiaCombines aspects of Hinduism & Buddhism

  • Influence of Religion.Religion has a powerful influence on daily life in South AsiaPrayer flags flap in the wind sending out mantras - sacred messagesSadhus - Hindu teachersIn Hindu countries, cows are considered sacred and are seen roaming the streetsPakistan - women must dress modestly as Islamic law requires

  • Agriculture.56% of India is arable (fertile)2/3 of people in South Asia are farmersFarming contributes 25% of Indias GDPMost are subsistence farmers- manage to produce just what they need to surviveSome farmers are getting better technology (tractors)Often have small plots of land because of traditional inheritance practicesMost farms are less than 2.5 acresLand is divided equally among sonsAs generations pass, plots become smaller

  • Agriculture.Variety of cropsMajor food crop is riceIndia is the worlds 2nd largest producer of ri

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