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SOUTH ASIA South Asia has geographic features that set it apart from the rest of Asia. Geographic features have contributed to cultural diversity in the region. The earliest civilization in South Asia developed in the Indus Valley

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South Asia. South Asia has geographic features that set it apart from the rest of Asia. Geographic features have contributed to cultural diversity in the region. The earliest civilization in South Asia developed in the Indus Valley. Flooding & storms. Indus Valley Civilization. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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South Asia

South AsiaSouth Asia has geographic features that set it apart from the rest of Asia.

Geographic features have contributed to cultural diversity in the region.

The earliest civilization in South Asia developed in the Indus Valley

Flooding & storms

Indus Valley CivilizationLargest of worlds earliest civilizations (2500 BCE)

Why do you think this civilization grew in the area that it did?

Lasted for about 1000 years

Arrival of the Aryans Nomadic and Warlike

Had iron weapons

Skilled Charioteers

The Vedas Oral religious tradition

Eventually written down when Aryans developed written language of SanskritHymnsPrayers Rituals

The Rig VedaAmong the most ancient religious texts still in existence

When there is harmony between the mind, heart and resolution then nothing is impossible.

For the successful accomplishment of any work one needs sharp intellect and the will to perform relentless Karma.

Yoga Began in the VedasYoga comes from the Rig Veda- Yuj- the act of yoking, harnessing, attaching = union with the supreme the source

Excavations from the Indus-Valley civilization show us the evidence of yogas existence even during that period. Excavators found depictions engraved on soapstone seals that resemble yogi like figures.

Hindu Mythology began with the VedasIndra is the king of the gods and ruler of the heavens. Indra is the god of thunder and rain and a great warrior, a symbol of courage and strength.

Brahma- Creator

Vishnu- Preserver

Shiva- destroyer

Rule by Rajah Hereditary Chiefs

Ruled Villages

Social Classes Brahmans = Priests

Kshatriys = Warriors

Vaisyas = Landowners, merchants, herders

Sudras = Servants (in modern day the Dalit class)

8 Fold Path followed in Buddhist Teachings

Lord MountbattenLast British Viceroy of India

In 1947 had to decide what form the partition of India would take and when it would happen

Indian National Congress and The Muslim LeagueMohandas Gandhi and Muhammad Ali Jinnah (first Governor General of the new state of Pakistan)

Gandhi and Nehru (First Prime Minister of India)

Mohandas GandhiCalled Mahatma (Great Soul) by his followers

He practiced non-violent resistanceThe idea of Satyagraha or truth force- The idea of loving ones enemy that comes from Hindu, Buddhist and Christian religionsThe goal was to convert the wrongdoer

He was influenced by the American writer Henry David Thoreaus writing which talked of civil disobedience = the refusal to obey unjust laws

Spinning Wheel: He made this the symbol of Indias struggle for freedom by giving up Western ways, dressing in a simple cotton garments, and encouraging traditional Indian industries like spinning cotton

The Salt March: 1930 he used Satyagraha to protest the salt tax that Britain imposed on Indians. 200-mile march to the sea to gather sea water to make salt, which was against the law. He was arrested by the government, but the movement gained international support and made the people in Britain debate whether it should keep India as a colony.

Fasting: In an act of non-violence, on several occasions Gandhi fasted (refrained from eating or drinking), in order to make his point. He fasted against injustices such as the treatment of the Dalit caste and against people acting out in violence.

End to British Rule = Partition 1946 widespread rioting broke out between Muslims and Hindus

One cause to the riots were deeply rooted in differences between religious beliefs (see your note on the clash of beliefs between Muslims and Hindus)

A second cause was that Hindus saw Muslims as foreign conquerors, because of the 300 hundred year rule of the Mughal sultans

1947 Indian Independence Act passed by British parliamentIndia gains freedom from British ruleLord Mountbatten, the last British Viceroy , sees to it that British soldiers leave IndiaAct also provided for the partition of India into two separate nations:Pakistan (Muslim dominated) India (Hindu dominated)

Partition led to an explosion of violence, Muslims killing Hindus and vice versa. Gandhi was sickened by the violence and refused to celebrate Indias independence.

The light has gone out of our lives.there is darkness everywhere- Jawaharlal Nehru (1st prime minister of india) Gandhi is killed by one of his own Hindu followers (an extremist), who believed Gandhi had betrayed the Hindu people by peacefully working with Muslims.

One million people attended Gandhis funeral