imperialism 1800-1914: south asia, asia impact: south asia (india)

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Imperialism 1800- 1914: South Asia, Asia Impact: South Asia (India)

Author: jonathan-charles

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Imperialism 1800-1914: South Asia, Asia

Impact:South Asia(India)New Imperialism: India Introduction:

India like pivot for Europeans moving between Asia (Qing Dynasty next lecture) and Africa (last lecture)and Europe itself --including Ottoman Empire: merchants, military men, administrators, civil servants

Literally: many of the above moved between these Imperial Interests in their careers

More than ideas influenced New Imperialist worldNew Imperialism: IndiaAsian Connections:

tied into hugely profitable opium trade with Qing Dynasty (18th-19th centuries next week)

- became replacement for Chinese tea production (mid-19th c)New Imperialism: IndiaIslamic/Ottoman Connections:

most of subcontinent under Muslim rule until early 18th century [Mughal Empire]

relations with British/French similar, producing similar political, intellectual movements

Please Watch Video The Story of India, in Addl RdgsIndia: Mughal Empire

New Imperialism: IndiaCombining cultural and commercial issues:

respecting Hindu, Muslim culture and religion

- developing commerce that benefited elites (including religious elite)

New Imperialism: India

Major footholds: Calcutta, Bombay, Madras

- East India Company (EIC) in Bengal amassed virtual empire

population larger than Western Europe

[Video: Story of India pays particular attention to this aspect of empire; textbook gives overall view, p.787]

BritishTerritory[EIC controlBengal, Coast]in India1797-1805New Imperialism: IndiaBombay:

Bombay rapidly growing as EIC invested in development

worked to keep local princes happy

Bombay 18th century

Bombay 19th Century

Causeway Construction, 1826Imperialism as Trade: IndiaTrade also made India part of Atlantic World:- key was cotton

[see upcoming lectures, readings on America]

Imperialism as Trade: IndiaEurope: from late 17th century knew Calico Craze- Indian prints part of domestic home dcor- fashion (men and women): French could not do without them

- industry of imitations developedIndian Cotton & European Life

Imperialism as trade: IndiaCaused economic problems:

fear that preference for Indian cottons would hurt domestic wool, silk industries

- balance of trade export increasing amounts of bullion lost (raw gold, silver)New Imperialism: IndiaReaction: from 1680s banning imports France, Prussia, Spain, Britain

- Britain enforced c.1721: reportedly mobs chased women on London streets to strip them of calico

- calico still on market because Dutch commerce did not ban it

New Imperialism: IndiaImpact even larger on Manufacturing:

challenges argument that more efficient cotton production in Britain, America undercut Indias

strong political hand assisted consumption patterns

banning of Indian Cotton helped create domestic market for European produced products imitating Asian patternsIndian Cotton

Indian Cotton in Global Trade

[See Indian Cotton Textiles 18th C. Atlantic Economy in Resources]Indian Cotton in Global TradeCotton did not become a global commodity because its production was mechanised and Industrialised on the contrary it became mechanised and industrialised thanks to the fact that it was a global commodity

It was India that underpinned that early economy and had to be pushed out (or at least into a new role) by 19th Century Imperialism.

[from The Making of a Global Economy in Resources]

Expansion of British Territory Possessions 1805-1914India: East India Company

Bombay 1860

Times of India Office, Church Gate StreetBombay: Victoria Docks 1888


Victoria Railroad Terminus, Completed Bombay 1888India: Mutiny 1857See The Story of India (video); textbook p.788

- Text gives it little detailed attention for video Story, is central

India: Mutiny 1857Indian Military:

initially, EIC paid for private military

- base: Bengal, so initially some ethnic, religious (Muslim) coherence

- 1850s, only 38,000 British troops more than 200,000 sepoys

- troops also expanded by recruitment Sikhs, Gurkhas, high-classed HinduIndia: Mutiny 1857

Sikh Officers, British Infantry Unit, Punjab c.1858India: Mutiny 1857

Indian Gurkhas, 1857India: Mutiny 1857Cultural, Religious mix: sensitive to changing terms of employment

- key issue: modern rifles with packaged cartridges had to be opened by tearing with teeth

- cartridges greased with unknown product

Was sure to contain some animal product:- bovine? Insult to Hindus- pork? Insult to MuslimsIndia: Mutiny 1857 Initial Rebellion: Meerut

- sparked rebellions throughout central region

- military: resentment at lack of promotion of Indian officers, orders that clashed with Hindu culture of travel abroad

- then spread to peasants, other elites who felt discrimination in administration, social life1857 Mutiny

1857 Mutiny

Fort Lucknow, after Mutiny 1857 [see video]1857 Mutiny: Lucknow

India: Mutiny 1857Cultural Discrimination:

- military rebellion (Mutiny refusal to obey orders to load guns) touched deeper level resentments growing over first half 19th C.

- growing power of EIC, and British Government itself: seen as threatening overall autonomy of sub-continent

- power of Maharaja princes no longer respected, Muslim Mughal power gone [expressed in video respect of the Orientalists gave way to greed and power]

[similarities with Qing Dynasty situation c. 1830s-50s, next lecture] India: Mutiny 1857Consequences of 1857-58:

- although rebellion relatively short, geographically contained, consequences significant

- provoked British Government to take full political control from EIC, remaining local Mughal rulers

- India to be ruled from London, with Governor General in Delhi India: Mutiny 1857Princes retained local ruling powers:

- had to remain loyal to Queen

raised issue of legitimacy: how to rule with traditional power when dependent on foreign authority? - use of pageantry, ritual: elaborate, some invented means to tie British and Indian rule together in eyes of peopleIndia: Mutiny 1857 1877 Queen Victoria proclaimed Empress of India:

India: Mutiny 1857New British Educated Elite:

- created bureaucracy Indian Civil Service- widespread local powers- entry: by exam written in London

- therefore: Indians effectively excluded

- comprised rapidly expanding sub-civil service under authority British administration

- assured large, literate British culture, growing aspirationsIndia: Colonial CultureColonial Culture: reflected 19th century racism

- white man considered most civilized

- questioned as to whether others could ever do more then imitate or improve

It is this consciousness of the inherent superiority of the European which had won for us India. However well educated and clever a native maybe, and however brave he may have proved himself, I believe that no rank we can bestow on him would cause him to be considered an equal of the British Officer. [Textbook, p.789]India: Colonial CulturePolitical Modernisation

(like Ottomans) movements in early part of century tried to reconcile traditional (religion, culture) with West

- Divine Society: addressed caste system, child marriage, widow burning (sati), later slavery and female infanticideIndia: Colonial CultureNationalism:

- Post-Mutiny: realization of what British rule meant

- education, exposure to Western ideas created expectations, demands: more control, more civil service opportunities (like Young Ottomans)India: Colonial CultureIntellectual Modernisation:

by 1850s: Indian intellectuals exploring Western secular values, nationalist/democratic ideals

Western education available, even for women

- by 1870: 25,000 students of elementary and secondary levels the new generationIndia: Colonial Culture1885 : former Indian National Congress

Goals: larger role for Indians in the Imperial Project

- little attention to millions of poor and untouchables

- an elite group created by the process of British Imperialism (education, culture)

- still too small to have impact: that would take another generation in a much larger colonial world [one that would include the continent of Africa]