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South Asia Global Studies

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South Asia

South AsiaGlobal Studies South Asia the sub continentSouth Asia/ Sub Continent of AsiaSouth Asia

History has created diversity today! Civilization2600 B.C.E- 1600 B.C.EFirst CivilizationIndia is named after the Indus RiverFirst civilization and religiously importantFlourished at the time when both Ancient Egypt and Sumer were at their heights.Indus River Valley is in present day Pakistan.What were the cities of this early civilization?

Indus Valley CitiesMohenjo-daro, BathsExcavated ruinsCoastal Harappan settlement

Computer-aided reconstruction of Coastal Harappa settlement6Gods of Indus ValleySeated Shiva figure termed PashupatiShiva statue

Mother goddess and Shiva, early elements of Hinduism7Aryan Period1600 BCE 500 BCEWhere did they come from?

These people came from the area between the Black Sea and the Caspian sea. Between 2500 and 2000 BC, many Indo-Europeans migrated all over Eurasia. Some went to Europe and became the Romans and the Greeks, some settled in Turkey and became the Hittites. Others migrated south-east instead. Some of them stopped in Iran, while others continued south-east to Pakistan and India.

Opinions differ regarding the original home of the Aryans. The most accepted view is that the region between Poland to the Central Asia might have been of the Aryans. They were said to be semi- nomadic people, who started moving from their original home towards the west, south and east8Aryan/Vedic period

Aryans brought language & their gods!SanskritRig Vedas

Vedas- works of Indo-Aryan Religious texts. The Vedas tell about religion and daily life. Vedas say there were many deities, but their was one supreme god above all others. It is a precursor to Hinduism. Sacrifices to the gods, open air alters. Rajas- hereditary chiefs, that ruled the villages. Chief Priest was very powerful. Vedas form the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest sacred texts of Hinduism

Its position in the cultures of Greater India is akin to that of Latin and Greek in Europe and it has significantly influenced most modern languages of the Indian subcontinent,10They broughtDomestic Horse & sacred CowIndus BullIron weapons & conquest

Established the Caste System

Missing the untouchable level.discuss later.12Alexander the GreatConquered Northern India- 325 B.C.E.Alexander didnt stay long, after a few years he returned to Babylon-where he diedA man named Chandragupta was able to overthrow the Aryan kingdom and form a big new empire over all of northern India and into Afghanistan- The Mauryan Empire

Mauryan Period326 B.C.E- 184 B.C.E

Mauryan LeadersChandraguptaEmperor Ashoka

Chandragupta died in 298 BC and was succeeded by his son Bindusara. Bindusara's son Ashoka made the Mauryan Empire even stronger, ruling some of southern India as well as the north.After Ashoka died in 231 BC, though, his sons and grandsons were not as strong rulers as he was, and the Mauryan Empire gradually fell apart.

15Ashoka Greatest King of the MauryansWhy is he a hero?Ashokas Edicts

Ashoka & Battle of Kalinga17Gupta Empire re-unites India.320 A.D.- 535 A.D.Emperor Chandragupta (chose name from great Mauryan ruler)Empire last for about 200 yearsSouthern India is NOT part of the empire & is still controlled by different Hindu Kings.

The Classical Age refers to the period when most of North India was reunited under the Gupta Empire (ca. A.D. 320-550). Because of the relative peace, law and order, and extensive cultural achievements during this period, it has been described as a "golden age" that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as Hindu culture with all its variety, contradiction, and synthesis.

18Gupta Empire = Golden AgesLike many other empires in the world- Gupta was time of Golden Ages..Han DynastyAfrican Kingdoms- Ghana & MaliEuropean Renaissance in the Middle AgesEnlightenmentPax Romana

19Southern part of India?King Raja Raja CholaRuled by Hindu Kingdoms

Decline of the Gupta EmpireAs the Gupta empire becomes weak and declines, invaders from many areas take over parts of South Asia.Next 1,000 years no real unity, different kingdoms etc.One kingdom was King Raja Raja Chola

Beginning of Muslim influence in South Asia1st Muslim EmpireDelhi Sultanate13th- 18th Centuries1200 A.D.- 1700 A.D.Delhi SultanatesSeries of Dynasties

Invaders from Central Asia (Turkish origin) that conquer and spread Islam to the region. Five or Six Dynasties of Turkish descentMamluk 1.2 Khalji 1.3 Tughlaq 1.4 Sayyid 1.5 Lodi22Old Delhi becomes capital of Islamic India.Tomb of Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughlaq, DelhiOld Delhi

The sultanates ruled from Delhi between 1206 and 1526,Indo-Muslim fusionOld Delhi was the capital of Islamic India under both empires- Growth of Islamic culture in India23Invaders from Central Asia: Mongolians

Mugal/Mongol Empire2nd Muslim Empire- 1500s- 1800s.Gun Powder EmpireIt consolidated Islam in South Asia.Spread Muslim/Persian Arts and Culture.Centralized government & many smaller kingdoms.Fusion of languages

The Mughals were Muslims who ruled a country with a large Hindu majority.25Mugal (Mongol) Islamic EmpireMaster of HindustanZahiruddin Muhammad Babur

Descendent of Genghis Khan, founder of the empire. The most successful of Babur's innovations was the introduction of gunpowder, which had never been used before in the Sub-continent. This combined with Babur's newer tactics gave him a greater advantage. Babur's strategy won the war and Ibrahim Lodhi died fighting. Takes time to conquer area and he doesnt rule that long, After him his 23 years old son Humayun came to power to rule an empire set up by his father. Then Sher Shan Suri, and then Akbar.26Tolerance & intolerance!Under Baber, Muslims were NOT absorbed into Hindu society.Hindus were forced to pay tax that was not required of Muslims.Destruction of Hindu temples; some conflict between Hindus/Muslims.However for much of their empire they allowed Hindus to reach senior government or military positions.

Akbar the GreatWhy ?

Akbar is known for integrating Hindus into his empire and skillfully using them as advisers, generals and administrators. Akbar also had a deep interest in religious matters, and spent many hours in discussion with religious experts of all persuasions, including Christians and Parsis.

In contrast to Akbar, his great-grandson Aurangazeb was more zealous (Islam) and ruthless ruler . 28Shah JahanWhat is his legacy?

European Imperialism ends Muslim rule in S. Asia.