classical india 1500 bce – 300 ce. south asia: indian subcontinent  large landmass- juts out...

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  • Classical India1500 BCE 300 CE

  • South Asia: Indian SubcontinentLarge landmass-juts out from a continent1 million square milesBhutan, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri LankaLess than 1/3 is arable (fertile)

  • What are the three major zones of Indian Subcontinent?Northern plainDeccan PlateauCoastal plains

  • So What?This geographical diversity has made it very difficult for any political power to unify all of India for any great length of time

  • The Monsoon

  • So What?Region was dependent on the Monsoon rains for adequate moisture and on the wind for trade and travelCultural diffusion and commercial activity map to monsoon patterns

  • The Vedic Age: Arya MigrationsIndo-European warriorsKing- Patriarchal kinship groupsHerded cattleVedasBrought iron tools/ weaponsSome moved to Ganges River ValleySettled, increased crop production, population increasedDisplaced darker-skinned Dravidian- Dasas- to south India

  • What was the Vedic Age?1500 - 500 BCEFoundational religious textPrayers, hymns, other religious teachingsTransmitted orally by priestsReveals violent

  • Arya Society: VarnaFirst warriors, then priests had most prestige, power Aryas dominated Dasas ( Dravidians)Origins of Varna system-means color but equivalent to classRationalized by belief in reincarnation

  • Arya Society: Varna/JatiDivided by occupationBrahmins = priestsKshatriyas = WarriorsVaisyas = herders, farmers, artisans, merchantsSudras = farm-workers, servants, laborers

  • Caste System: Varna/ JatiClass divisions were social & economic; not ethnicDeveloped into complex system; multiple sub castes Born into caste Could not change

  • Women & Vedic AgeNot much is knowncould study lore & participate in ritualscould own landmarried middle or late teens

  • Arya Religion: BrahmanismPolytheistic? Monotheistic?Pantheistic?Gods embodied natural forcesSacrifice, rituals/prayersEvolved into single power of brahmanMystics devoted their lives to spiritual truth-meditation, yoga, spiritual & bodily discipline

    Indra: God of war & thunder (atmospheric)

    Varuna: God of rain (celestrial)Agni: God of Fire (terrestrial)

  • How Does One Achieve Moksha?Reincarnation (samsara)DharmaKarma

  • How did Hinduism Change & Develop?Brahman sometimes seen as having 3 personalities:Brahma-creatorVishnu-protectorShiva-destroyer

  • Hinduism & SocietyIdeas of reincarnation & karma strengthened the caste systemOnly men at top could achieve mokshaDominated every aspect of lifeProvided stability/order

  • Challenges to the Old Order: Jainism & BuddhismJainismBuddhismBoth were reactions to the rigidity and monopoly of the Brahmins

  • Challenges to Old Order: Buddhism Siddhartha GautamaBuddha means Enlightened OneFour Noble TruthsEight Fold Path

  • Buddhism: What are the Four Noble Truths?Four Noble TruthsAll life is sufferingSuffering is caused by desireSuffering can endSolution is to follow the Eight Fold Path

  • Buddhism: What is the Eight Fold Path?

  • BuddhismAll are equalModeration alleviate sufferingMeditation nurtures wisdomBeing content is goodDenies existence of a soulUltimate goal is Nirvana-salvationEveryone can reach enlightenmentBodhisattvas-beings who have achieved enlightenment but choose to return to the world to help others

  • Wheel of LawBuddha turned the Wheel of Dharmametaphor for spiritual change The eight spokes symbolize Noble Eightfold Path set out by Buddha represents endless cycle of samsara-rebirth

  • Buddhism & Hinduism SimilarityMuch of Buddhist teaching reflected Hindu traditionOrdinary life is illusionKarma, rebirth, overcoming the demands of ego, meditation, release from cycle of rebirthNon-ViolenceMore simplified accessible than HinduismReinforced patriarchal views of women

  • Buddhism & HinduismDifferenceRejected religious authorityRejected rituals sacrifices as irrelevant Individuals take responsibility for spiritual developmentEgalitarian-rejected caste systemBuddhism more accessibleBuddhist nuns-more independence

  • Areas of Influence

  • Challenges to Old Order: JainismFounded by Mahavira (540-468 BCE)non-violence (ahisma)Many went naked, starved to deathLess extreme members pursued commerce/banking

  • What happened after Buddhas Death?Monasteries, nunneriesComplex, hierarchicalWorship of BuddhabodhisattvasBuddha art Mahayana- new beliefsTheravada-original teachings

  • Evolution of HinduismPressure led to reformSacrifice less important - personal devotion increasedVishnu & Shiva, Devi became prominentPreserved Brahmin status and privilege

  • How did Hinduism emerge as the dominant religion of India?centered on temples/shrinesPilgrimageduties varied according to gender, social status, ageTransformation so successful-Hinduism became dominantHinduism appealed to common peoples need for personal deitiesHinduism displaced BuddhismTheravada too austereMahayana easily absorbed

  • How did Mauryan Empire Rise to Power?Indus Civs declined around 1900 BCEBy 600 BCE, almost 1000 years after Aryan migrations, many small kingdoms scattered throughout India In 326, BCE, Alexander the Great conquered region -left Macedonian general-Seluecus I-in controlChandragupta Maurya overthrew Seluecus-conquered all of north India

  • How did Chandragupta govern the Empire?Relied on Katilya- his Brahmin advisorArthashastraTough policiesBureaucratic government 4 provinces ruled by prince-divided into districtsSpying Assassination

  • Mauryan Capital: PataliputraWalled, moated cityLarge army25% tax on agricultural productsState monopolies on mines, shipbuilding, armamentsVery wealthyGold covered pillarsFountainsThronesParksMarkets

  • Who was Ashoka?Chandragupta Mauryas grandsonPrince - then kingConquered Kalinga in brutal warHorrified!Rejected violence - converted to BuddhismPromoted Buddhist principles

  • What were Ashokas Edicts?Create united empirePropaganda-spread common valuesCave walls, rocks, tower pillars all Act morally-take responsibility for actionsFairnessHumane treatmentNonviolenceReligious toleration

  • What Else Did Ashoka Do?Extensive roadsWells & rest housesSent out missionaries to spread Buddhism

  • Mauryan Empire DeclinePower vacuum after Ashokas deathMany kingdoms with overlapping boundariesMIGRATION, CULTURAL DIFFUSION, TRADENew peoples, new languages, new ideasSyncretism-blending of cultures into new form

  • What New Kingdoms Emerged?Satavahana dynasty in Deccan Central India experienced economic improvements, more religious authority & urbanizationSouthern India-three Tamil kingdoms (Cholas, Pandyas, Cheras) period of great artistic achievement

  • How did India survive the absence of a strong central government?Artisans and Merchants played a dominant roleTrade flourishedExports = Pearls, jewels, pepper, spices, silks, ivory, ebonyImports=metals, coral More Roman coins found in India than Indian coins in Rome; what can be inferred?New cities, coastal ports, & banks

  • What cultural changes emerged?Shift from reverence for Buddha to worship like a godHinduism God worship became more personal-VishnuArt & Architecture blossomedLiteratureLaw of Manu helped keep orderRamayana & MahabharataBhagavad-GitaAyurvedic MedicineAnalysis of Sanskrit

  • Gupta EmpireChandra Gupta reunited India after 500 yearsExpansion & consolidation of empireControlled iron deposits, established state monopolies, 25% agricultural taxGolden AgeTheater State

  • Golden Age of Gupta Empire: Theater StateTradeArtsScienceAstronomyPEACE and PROSPERITYMathematics

  • Women During GuptaWomen lost right to inherit, own property, participate in key rituals Treated like lowest varna (Shudra)Married young-Sati-widows on funeral pyresome joined religious community

  • Gupta Religion: dominated by Hinduism-Brahmins regained power, influence, wealthReligious tolerationDevelopment of classic form of Hindu temples w/ exterior courtyard, inner shrine, wall decoration

  • Gupta CollapseIn 550 c.e., the Gupta empire collapsed under the financial burden of defense against the White HunsHarsha (r. 606647 c.e), whose kingdom is described by the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang, briefly reunited northern India. After Harsha, northern India again fell into political fragmentation. As India decentralized, it developed a feudal economic and social structure.

  • Southeast Asia, 501025 c.e. Geography/ ResourcesSoutheast Asia has three geographical zones: (1) the Indochina mainland, (2) the Malay Peninsula, and (3) the islands. The area stands between China and India, and has been influenced by both civilizations.Natural resources include fertile agricultural lands, dependable monsoon rains, and several growing

  • Early Civilization Early inhabitants practiced swidden (slash and burn) agriculture-domesticated rice, soybeans, sugar cane, chickens, pigsReceived waves of migrations of Malay peoples from southern ChinaMalay migrations continued into Pacific Islands & into Indian Ocean. Early Malay groups in lived in small villages, manufactured bronze tools, and were organized in small political units.The first large states in Southeast Asia emerged in the early centuries c.e. in response to the position of Southeast Asia as a crossroads for trade and travel between India and China. Trade brought business; it also brought Hindu/Buddhist culture.Southeast Asian kingdoms incorporated what they found useful from Indian models of bureaucracy and cultural beliefs.The first major state to app

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