history of africa africa unit. the continent of africa

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  • Slide 1
  • History of Africa Africa Unit
  • Slide 2
  • The Continent of Africa
  • Slide 3
  • Early Civilizations of Africa Africa Unit
  • Slide 4
  • Where Civilization Began Olduvai Gorge located on the edge of the Great Rift Valley in Tanzania Archaeologists Mary and Louis Leakey discovered bone over 2 million years old This has led some scientists to believe that the first people were from Africa
  • Slide 5
  • Slide 6
  • Bantu Migration Today, close to 100 million people across the southern half of Africa speak related languages, collectively known as Bantu languages. Linguistic evidence shows that the root Bantu language emerged in what is now Nigeria and Cameroon by 2000 BC. By 1000 BC, in a series of migrations, Bantu speakers had spread south to the lands of Angola and east to Lake Victoria. Over the next 1500 years they scattered throughout central and southern Africa, interacting with and absorbing indigenous populations as they spread.
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Slide 9
  • The Gold Salt Trade Traveling caravans crossed the vast Sahara desert to the Middle East Travelers looked to profit from the desert crossing with large trades The savanna lands of West Africa lacked salt, which is essential to survival In West Africa, salt was more valuable than gold
  • Slide 10
  • Ghana became a rich and powerful nation, especially when the camel began to be used as a source of transport. Ghana relied on trade and trade was made faster and bigger with the use of the camel.
  • Slide 11
  • After 700 AD, the religion of Islam began to spread over northern Africa. Followers of this religion are called Muslims. Muslim warriors came into Ghana and fought with the non-Islamic people there. This weakened the great civilization of Ghana. Local warriors then decided to break away from the power of Ghana and form their own local kingdoms. This ended many of the trade networks. This eventually weakened the civilization of Ancient Ghana. Islamic Mosque in Ghana
  • Slide 12
  • The Empire of Mali is Born
  • Slide 13
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  • The Slave Trade Africa Unit
  • Slide 16
  • How Does The Slave Trade Begin? Early 1400s Europeans sent explorers to West Africa to map it and look for gold They traded iron, copper, fish, sugar, ivory, gold, and pepper. Europeans wanted to convert Africans to Christianity
  • Slide 17
  • How Does The Slave Trade Begin? Europeans required a large labor force to make their American colonies profitable 1 st used Native Americans Then looked to Africans because of their numbers and their lack of modernization
  • Slide 18
  • Triangular Slave Trade EuropeAfrica The Americas
  • Slide 19
  • Triangular Slave Trade
  • Slide 20
  • The Middle Passage
  • Slide 21
  • The Atlantic Slave Trade 1550-1650 575,000 Slaves 1650-1750 3,850,000 Slaves 1750-1850 4,700,000 Slaves
  • Slide 22
  • Slide 23
  • Why was there a slave trade? Demand for Goods Demand for Slaves
  • Slide 24
  • Ending the Slave Trade 1700s European thinkers begin to oppose slavery Abolition Movement movement to end slavery 1807 Britain outlawed trading 1834 Britain outlawed slavery It continued in USA until 1865
  • Slide 25
  • Why did the slave trade end? Industrialization Less Need for Slaves
  • Slide 26
  • African Diaspora The slave trade sent millions of Africans overseas this created a scattering of individuals Survivors struggled to hold on to their culture African people and their culture of food, music, dance, and tradition was spread across a wide area.
  • Slide 27
  • 1787 British set up a colony in West Africa for freed slaves (Sierra Leone) Later, free blacks from the US formed Liberia, it became independent in 1847
  • Slide 28
  • Age of Imperialism Africa Unit
  • Slide 29
  • Tribalism in Africa Tribalism Pride and loyalty to ones people within Africa being based on tribal boundaries Historical Significance Europeans did not understand or respect Tribalism. This has resulted in additional conflict being created in Africa which has continued to last to present day
  • Slide 30
  • Imperialism (Colonialism) (Colonization) WHEN A MORE POWERFUL NATION TAKES OVER A WEAKER NATION FOR ECONOMIC, STRATEGIC, OR POLITICAL REASONS.
  • Slide 31
  • Main Cause of African Imperialism Economic Motives European factories need raw materials to run. Coal / Iron Ore / Oil / Cotton / Rubber These raw materials are found in Africa. Strategic Motives Offers port cities between Europe and Asia
  • Slide 32
  • Causes of African Imperialism Political Motives Prestige The more land you control the more powerful you are Religious (Spiritual) Motives Christians believed that it was their duty to spread the ideals of Christianity White Mans Burden Duty of the white race to bring the superior white culture to non-whites
  • Slide 33
  • Boers (Dutch) vs. British The Dutch (Boers) had settled in Cape Town in 1652 Early 1800s British won control of the Cape colony from the Boers The Boers retreated on the Great Trek northward The Boers set up two independent republics in the 1850s 1. Orange Free State 2. Transvaal
  • Slide 34
  • The Berlin Conference Representatives from 14 European countries made decisions about dividing Africa No African representatives were invited
  • Slide 35
  • The Scramble for Colonies Some colonies were taken by force but most were voluntarily given up Treaties were negotiated with African leaders
  • Slide 36
  • Slide 37
  • New Patterns of Government Direct Rule European Governments controls everything Indirect Rule European officials make decisions and native leaders enforce them
  • Slide 38
  • African Independence Africa Unit
  • Slide 39
  • Negative Effects of Imperialism Traditional patterns of life were destroyed Exploited Africas natural resources Switched to farming cash crops African villages were no longer self-sufficient Africans became dependant on Europe Positive Effects of Imperialism Built roads, bridges, and railroads Set up new schools Introduced new farming methods
  • Slide 40
  • Steps to African Independence Nationalism grew in the different African countries after WWII. Most Europeans were reluctant to fight to hold onto overseas colonies. African leaders began to use the cry of Africa for Africans.
  • Slide 41
  • Steps to African Independence African leaders organized political parties and staged strikes & boycotts. Organization of African Unity - Formed in 1963 to promote peace and independence Pan-Africanism calls for the unifying of all of Africa
  • Slide 42
  • Kenya Fights for Independence In Kenya, white settlers had moved in and displaced African farmers, mostly of the Kikuyu tribe. Jomo Kenyatta was a spokesman for the Kikuyu and led the movement to get Europeans off their land. Kenyatta supported nonviolent methods, but others turned to guerrilla warfare. By 1952, they began to attack European settlers.
  • Slide 43
  • Kenya Fights for Independence The British called the guerrillas Mau Mau and pictured them as savages. The British imprisoned Kenyatta and threw thousands of Kikuyu into concentration camps. The British went on to bomb the Mau Mau fighters, armed only with swords. The rebels were crushed, but not the freedom movement. When the British released Kenyatta in 1963, he became the first prime minister of an independent Kenya.
  • Slide 44
  • Apartheid in South Africa Africa Unit
  • Slide 45
  • Origins of Apartheid 1910 Britain granted S. Africa self-rule Whites make up 13% of Africas pop. 77% are black 1948 Nationalist party comes to power Supported by white farmers (Boers) They set up apartheid rigid separation of races
  • Slide 46
  • The Republic of South Africa S. Africans were classified as black, white, coloured (mixed), Asians Pass laws were created White only busses, beaches, bathrooms, restaurants, and schools Opposition groups were banned from speaking out (ANC) Nelson Mandela is imprisoned for 27 years for opposing racial segregation
  • Slide 47
  • Struggle Against Apartheid Archbishop Desmond Tutu strongly opposed apartheid, but not through violence (won Nobel Peace Prize) Freedom marches and boycotts spread across South Africa During the 1980s economic sanction were imposed by the United States and other nations
  • Slide 48
  • Apartheid Ends F.W. De Klerk lifts ban on opposition groups 1990 Nelson Mandela is released from prison His release symbolized hope for the people of South Africa 1991 Africans were no longer classified by race 1992 citizenship is given to blacks 1994 Mandela is elected President

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