africa the dark continent

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  • IIPM Dare to thing beyond

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  • Presented bY :-Aqib Farooq

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  • AFRICATHE DARK CONTINENT

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  • *Africa, The Dark Continent

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  • IntroductionThe Dark Continent.Europeans knew little of sub Saharan and called it Dark Continent.So huge that part of Sahara is almost as large as the who North America.Centuries Euros on knew the coast (Gold, Ivory, Slave), Nile, Niger, Congo Rivers.People black but very diverse physically, culturally (over thousand languages).Craftsmanship in arts, bronze sculpture, gold, weaving.

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  • In the North was Islam, other areas were traditional religions People lived mainly in villages, agricultural or cattle raising.Timbuktu was one great city ancient kingdoms were weakened by intertribal wars, slave trade like Ottomans. Africa came under European assault when it was in a weakened state.Before 1750 there were no white settlements in sub Saharan Africa later, there were as many as seven million people of European descent.

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  • Opening of AfricaLivingstone and StanleyFirst opened up to missionaries, explorers and adventurers1841 Scottish David Livingstone as a medical missionary doing humanitarian and religious workOccasionally traded and explored (but had no economic, political aims)

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  • Geography of AfricaNorthern Mediterranean.The SaharaThe Sahel.The Niger, Congo, and Nile Systems.The Rift Valleys and the Great Lakes.South Africa.

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  • Main IdeasFertile soil along the Nile River encouraged the rise of great civilizations.Many geographic features in Africa have prevented contact, trade & unity among peoples. Many of these same features limit European knowledge of Africa the Dark Continent.

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  • The Dawn of HumanityThe Out of Africa thesis and Leakey's. The Rise of Homo Sapiens.The Rift Valleys.Agriculture and Sedentary Society.The Green Sahara.

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  • The Bantu MigrationsThe Khoi and the San.Iron Age technology and the Nok.Hiving-off and linguistic derivation.Leaving the cows behind the Tsetse belt.The Indonesian Connection.

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  • Early African EmpiresEgypt: African or Near Eastern?Kush and the domination of Egypt.Meroe and Iron working.Kleptocracy and underdevelopment.Axum and the Lion of Judah.Adulis and Hellenistic trade.

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  • African Social LifeThe primacy of statesKinship structuresInformal relations of genderThe role of religion and African shamanismThe Big Man system of ruleVarieties of state formation

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  • Interesting Statistics2nd largest continent- - 1,17,00,000 square miles!i.e 20.2% of the earthAnd 3x the size of the USA77,80,00,000 people55 countries

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  • TopographyDeserts40% of the land surface of Africaslows cultural diffusion - does not totally prevent itSahara -- North Africa1/3 of the continent (= to the USA!!)majority is rock and gravelKalahari--Southwest Africa

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  • True desert spreads into semi-arid regions

    6.bin

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  • Desertification - CausesFarmers use semi-arid land next to desert - yields poor cropOvergrazing by cattle and goatsOvercutting of trees for firewoodWith no grass or tree roots, the topsoil blows away, the desert advances

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  • SolutionsCrop rotationTerracing to prevent soil from washing awayTree belts to stop erosion and hold soil in place

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  • MountainsEast Africa-section of the land sank - causing the Great Rift ValleyAtlas (NW)Drakensberg (SE)Ethiopian HighlandsFamous peaks - Mt. Kenya & Mt. Kilimanjaro

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  • RiversDepth varies depending on the seasonPlateaus prevent easy navigation

    Therefore, the interior of Africa remained largely unexplored

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  • 4,180 miles long (worlds longest!!)flows NORTHSource - - Lake VictoriaDelta - - EgyptFloods annually One of the most densely populated region in Africa

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  • Waterfalls and rapids prevent easy navigationCongo - 3000 miles longNiger - ancient civilizations flourished hereZambezi - Victoria Falls, used for hydro-electric power

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  • CoastlineSmoothFew natural harbors - hard to land ships

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  • Climate - determined by rainfall, latitude and elevationSavanna - 40%, safari!!Tropical Rainforest - 8%, Desert - 40%Mediterranean - 12%, good farm land

    About 85% of the land is not suited to farming

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  • Climate

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  • Natural ResourcesFarmingpeanuts, cotton, cocoa, coffeeMineralsdiamonds, gold, copper, cobaltWaterhydroelectric power

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  • Where are Boundaries drawn Between StatesThe shape of a state controls the length of its boundaries with other states.The five basic shapes are Compact, Prorupted, Elongated, fragmented, and perforated

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  • Why do boundaries between states cause problems?One state with many nationalities, e.g., Russia.One nationality on more than one state, e.g., the Kurds.Internal organization of states

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  • HEALTH-AFRICA:Neglected Diseases Under the Microscope

    Of the 1,556 new drugs developed between 1975 to 2004, only 1.3 percent were for Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs).Despite these ailments accounting for 12 percent of the global disease burden, according to the Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDi).A non-governmental agency committed to researching and developing new and improved treatment for NTDs.The diseases in question account for the deaths of 500,000 people annually, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, but drug development is biased towards the prospect of high profits, which diseases of the poor like sleeping sickness and visceral leishmaniaisis are unable to offer.

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  • 14 neglected tropical diseases:-

    Buruli ulcer -Leishmaniasis -Chagas disease Leprosy -Cholera/Epidemic diarrhoeal diseases- Lymphatic filariasis -Dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever -Onchocerciasis - Dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease) -Schistosomiasis -Endemic Treponematoses (yaws, pinta, endemic syphilis) - Soil-transmitted helminthiasis - Trachoma- Human African trypanosomiasis.

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  • Conflicts in AfricaThere have been over 9 million refugees and internally displaced people from conflicts in Africa.Hundreds and thousands of people have been slaughtered from a number of conflicts and civil wars. If this scale of destruction and fighting was in Europe, then people would be calling it World War III with the entire world rushing to report, provide aid, mediate and otherwise try to diffuse the situation.

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  • slavery

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  • slavery

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  • African slaves became part of theAtlantic slave trade, from which comes the modern, Western conception ofslaveryas an institution of African-descended slaves and non-African slave owners. Despite its illegality, slaverycontinues in some parts of the world, including Africa.Elikia Mbokolo, April 1998,Le Monde diplomatique. Quote:"TheAfricancontinent was bled of its human resources via all possible routes. Across theSahara, through the Red Sea, from the Indian Ocean ports and across the Atlantic. At least ten centuries of slavery for the benefit of theMuslim countries(from the ninth to the nineteenth)." He continues: "Four million slaves exported via theRed Sea, another four million through theSwahili ports of theIndian Ocean, perhaps as many as nine million along thetrans-Saharancaravan route, and eleven to twenty million (depending on the author) across theAtlantic Ocean.

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  • If this scale of destruction and fighting was in Europe, then people would be calling it World War IIIwith the entire world rushing to report, provide aid, mediate and otherwise try to diffuse the situation.Yet here, as mentioned in themediasection of this web site,and noted by Virgil Hawkins, the western mainstream media does practically nothing to raise this awareness (or, perhaps it is not deemed important enough to report extensively about). Hawkins did a year long study (see above new world maps link) on some major western media outlets in 2000 to see what percentage of their media focus fell where.Disappointingly, and unsurprisingly perhaps, Africa did not even figure in 10% of the coverage.

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  • After the arrival of the Europeans there was a sharp decline in the local population of most of the islands in the Caribbean Sea. This created a problem for the Europeans as they needed labour to exploit the natural resources of these islands. Eventually the Europeans came up with a solution: the importation of slaves from Africa. By 1540, an estimated 10,000 slaves a year were being brought from Africa to replace the diminishing local populations.

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  • At the end of the 14th century Europeans started to take people from Africa against their will. Initially they were mainly used as servants for the rich. The Europeans justified the taking of slaves by arguing that they were providing an opportunity for Africans to become Christians. By the 17th century the removal of slaves from Africa became a holy cause that had the full support of the Christian Church.The people living in the Americas resisted the attempt by the Europeans to take over their land. One of he most important struggles took place in Cuba in 1512. The Cubans, led by Chief Hatuey, were eventually defeated by the superior weapons of the Spanish.

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  • Friction and Rivalry between the PowersColonial Race in Africa1885-1900 war almost broke out over AfricaPortuguese annexed huge part in Angola and Mozambique, Italians took Somaliland and Eritrea but were unable to take EthiopiaBismarck reluctantly established colonies in East Africa and Cameroon and Togo along with German Southwest Afr

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