world geography africa notes.  africa – 2 nd largest continent

Download World Geography Africa Notes.  Africa – 2 nd largest continent

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  • World Geography Africa Notes
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  • Africa 2 nd largest continent
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  • Plateaus - Huge plateau covers most of Africa, Basins - huge depressions on plateau Plateaus separated by escarpments steep slope with flat plateau on top
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  • Mountains - Mount Kilimanjaro is Africas highest mountain
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  • Valleys long, thin rift valleys were formed when Pangaea broke apart Eastern part is still slowly pulling away from Africa
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  • Congo River - Africas largest river network (2,900-mile) 32 cataracts (waterfalls) make much of Congo impassable
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  • Nile River worlds longest river - Provides 95% of Egypts water
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  • Created 300-mile Lake Nasser to regulate the water supply along the Nile Benefits - Provides regular supply of water for farmers & holds back Nile floodwaters for irrigation Egypts farmable land increased by 50% ( now have two or three harvests a year)
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  • Problems - River no longer deposits rich silt sedimenton farmland Irrigation raises water table & river doesnt flush out salts that decrease soil fertility Mosquitoes thrive in Lake Nasser, spread malaria, other diseases Millions of gallons of fresh water lost yearly to lake evaporation
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  • Lake Victoria - Africas largest lake Worlds 2 nd largest freshwater lake Victoria Falls Named after Queen Victoria DavidLivingstone was the 1 st European explorer to see the waterfalls
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  • Deserts - Sahara is worlds largest May go years without rain Temperatures as high as 136 degrees in summer, freezing at night Fewer than 2 million of Africas 800 million people live in Sahara
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  • Aquifers - located 6,000 feet under Sahara creates oasis when water comes to the surface
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  • Sahel - narrow band of grassland runs east- west along southern Sahara edge
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  • Desertification expansion of dry conditions into nearby moist areas Human Causes of Desertification - Livestock overgrazing, Water drilling& irrigation increase soils salt levels
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  • Tropical Savanna - covers half of Africa - Six-month rainy season - Longer rainy seasons near equator; longer dry seasons near desert Tropical Grassland - covers most of Africa dry climate, hard soil prevent growth of trees, crops
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  • Serengeti Plain ( northern Tanzania) - best grasslands in the world (Serengeti National Park) Ideal for grazing animals like wildebeests, gazelles, zebras Site of largest numbers of migrating land mammals
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  • Mediterranean climate Located on northern & southern tips of Africa - Clear blue skies, moderate summers, rain in winter
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  • Tropics - Africa has largest tropical area of any continent - 90% of Africa lies between tropics of Cancer & Capricorn - High temperatures year around
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  • - Major tropical rain forests are on equator in Congo Basin - Most animals live in canopy uppermost branches, 150 feet off ground (birds, monkeys, flying foxes, snakes)
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  • Africas minerals make it one of worlds richest continents Oil - Libya, Nigeria, Algeria among worlds leading petroleum producers Nigeria is worlds 6 th leading oil exporter (most shipped to U.S).
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  • Coffee - Africas second most profitable commodity -20% of worlds supply is grown there few but only a Africans drink it 42% of worlds cobalt South Africa is largest producer of chromium, for stainless steel & produces 80% of worlds platinum, & 30% of gold
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  • What are rift Valleys? What is Africas highest peak? What is an escarpment? What is the largest lake in Africa? Africa is the largest continent. What African country receives 95% of its water from the Nile River? What is the Serengeti? What is the Sahel? Where is a canopy & who lives there? What is the main purpose of the Aswan high Dam? What is an aquifer? What is desertification? What is the longest river in the world? What is an oasis? Where are aquifers in the Sahara Desert? Name three ways that humans cause desertification? What is Africas 2 nd most profitable commodity?
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  • Prehistoric remains found in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania 3100 B.C. - Egyption civilization developed along the Nile Nile provided water & rich soil Pharaohs rule Egypt for 2,600 years Egyptian geometry and medicine are spread by trade
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  • 814 B.C. - Ancient city of Carthage was founded in location on Gulf of Tunis peninsula A.D. 800 -1591 - Ghana, Mali, & Songhai empires grew on Sahara trade routes (gold, salt)
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  • 1400s to 1800s - Slave traders exchanged guns & goods for captive Africans Colonialism 1800s Europe began colonizing the region - Berlin Conference European powers divided the continent Effects of Colonialism - Lost resources as well as the cultural & ethnic oppression of people Little infrastructure or money for transportation, education systems Most countries gained their independence by 1960s
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  • White minority government in South Africa instituted apartheid Complete separation of races in schools, hospitals, & neighborhoods Blacks make up 75% of population, but owned little land
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  • 1949 - Nelson Mandela became leader African National Congress - Worked to end apartheid & was imprisoned
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  • 1980s - South Africa began reform - Pressured by international sanctions 1989 - F.W. de Klerk became president Early 1990s - Peaceful revolution ended apartheid 1994 Nelson Mandela was freed & elected president 1996 - New, democratic constitution passed
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  • Trade in the Ghana, Mali, & Songhai Empires was based on what two products? What was the main purpose of the Berlin Conference? What did the rest of the world implement in an attempt pressure South Africa to end apartheid? What is infrastructure?
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  • Mineral wealth has not created general African prosperity Most African countries are worse off today than in 1960 - Average incomes have decreased
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  • - Worldwide: accounts for 1% of total GNP, 1.5% of exports - Lack crucial infrastructure (roads, airports, railroads, ports) - Little access to computers or high technology manufacturing to achieve economic growth and stability
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  • Most countries do little manufacturing - Sell raw materials to industrialized countries (Serves as the economic base for most African nations)
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  • Agriculture is Africas single most important economic activity - 66% of Africans earn a living farming which accounts for 1/3 of exports
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  • One-commodity countries rely on export of one or two commodities (economies unstable) - Commodity - agricultural or mining product that can be sold (supply and demand) Economists want Africans to diversify - create variety in economies & promote
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  • Uneducated populace is a large barrier to economic development Brain Drain - Many professionals migrate to Western nations Average schooling time for women up only 1.2 years in last 40 years
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  • 2001 - less than half the sub-Saharan young adults attended school - shortage of teachers and secondary schools high dropout rate Civil wars have destroyed school systems in Angola and Somalia In Cameroon, most children leave school at age 12 Algeria - 94% get a formal education 83% of Mauritians over 15 are literate
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  • Epidemic diseases are killing Africas people in huge numbers. Cholera sometimes fatal infection that is spread by poor sanitation & lack of clean water
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  • Malaria - often-fatal infectious disease marked by chills & fever carried by mosquitoes (resistant to d

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