africa: the plateau continent

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Africa: the Plateau Continent. The physical geography of Africa. Vocabulary. Basin Nile River Rift Valley Mount Kilimanjaro Escarpment. Plateau. plateau covers most of Africa. narrow strip of coastline. Throughout the plateau there are several basins. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Africa:the Plateau ContinentThe physical geography of Africa

  • Vocabulary BasinNile RiverRift ValleyMount KilimanjaroEscarpment

  • plateau covers most of Africa. narrow strip of coastline.

    Throughout the plateau there are several basins.Basins depressions where river systems usually drain. Imagine a bowl

    625 + miles across5000 ftdeepPlateau

  • Why is there no basin here?Notice the plateau outline.

  • The Congo Basin second largest tropical forest, 700,000 square miles in six countries, quarter of the worlds remaining tropical forest. over 10,000 species of plants, 1,000 species of birds, 400 species of mammals. 24 million people, depend on the forest for their livelihoods. The Congo Basin

  • RiversSince water travels downhill flows into, and through basins. Basins contain giant (size of Texas) swampsLots of water-borne diseasesAs the rivers cut through the edge of basins toward the sea, they fall over the edge of the plateaus in a series of waterfalls and rapids through narrow gorges.not useful for navigation because of these cataracts

  • The origin of the Nile, where it leaves Lake Victoria and begins its journey northward.

  • A cataract is a part of the river that is impassable to ships.

  • Distinctive African LandformsRift valley a long thin valley created by the splitting of the continental plates.

    Photo of the Great Rift Valley from the International Space Station

  • The volcanoes are at the edges of the plates.When do you expect Africa to be ripped completely apart?

  • What do the red triangles represent?

  • Mountains Mount Kilimanjaro- Africas highest mountain. volcanic

    Escarpment a steep slope with a nearly flat plateau on top. The Great EscarpmentSouthern edge of the continent

  • Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania

  • Minerals and ResourcesAfrica produces80% of the worlds platinum30% of the worlds gold42% of the worlds cobalt Much of the worlds oil is located in North Africa

    Africa possesses a huge amount of the worlds mineralsWhy are they still so poor?

  • Minerals attract othersEuropeans colonized Africa in late 1800s. Shipped riches back to EuropeLeft Africa poorer

    Africa in the Early Twentieth Century

  • ResourcesOil and Coffee are the most profitable commodities in Africa. Commodity is something that can be sold (specifically agricultural or mining)Lumber is another important commodity.

    66% of Africans earn their living from farming. Subsistence agriculture is the single most important economic activity in Africa.

  • Africa: A Land of ExtremesClimate and Vegetation

  • DesertsSahara-largest desert in the world3000 miles from Atlantic to Red Sea20% sand (erg)80% rock formations, gravelly plains (reg)136 to below freezingKalahari Desert in the southNamib Desert in the southwestAquifers-underground waterOasis-where water comes to the surface

  • TropicsBetween the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of CapricornNo noticeable difference between seasonsDay length equals night (12 hours day, 12 night)90% of Africa is in the tropicsCooler at night

  • RainforestCongo BasinMadagascarNearly destroyed through slash and burn farmingCanopyUppermost layer of branches150 feet above the forest floor

  • Sunshine and RainfallCongo Basin rainforest receives rain year roundThe rest of the continent has either no rain or two seasons wet and dry

  • Tropical GrasslandSerengeti PlainNorthern TanzaniaHard soil and dry climate prevent trees but are good for grassLots of animals (think Lion King)

  • Africa:Human Environment Interaction

  • Desertification of the Sahel

    DesertificationAn expansion of dry conditions into moist areas next to desertsBeforeAfter

  • Causes of DesertificationHuman factorsOver grazing of livestock exposes soil Animals trample soilFarmingIncreased population

  • Result of DesertificationLoss of grasslands and farm areas

  • Stopping DesertificationVery difficult to slow this processTree plantingMore efficient use of farm and forest landsTo fight soil erosion of the land during the dry season, these women in Burkina Faso prepare the ground by pounding it and terracing it in order to catch the water when the rains finally come. UN Photo #167616 by J. Isaac

  • Harming the Environment in NigeriaOil discovered here in 195680-90% of national incomeMost of it purchased by U.S.High oil prices in 1970s made Nigeria one of wealthiest nations in Africa

  • So, why are they poor now?Government mismanagement and corruptionPoor planningDecline in oil prices

  • Destroying the Land and People4,000 oil spills in the Niger Delta in the past 4 decadesSlow & non-existent clean-upFires resulting from spills have caused acid rain, massive deposits of sootIncreased respiratory diseases

  • This type of oil spill is widespread in the Niger Delta. Amukpe is near a major city of Sapele and therefore attracted attention of the public. In rural areas, such spills would go on for months before any action is taken. The Federal Government of Nigeria owned the facilities from which oil gushed into River Ethiope. Note the immediate impact of the spill on plants. The spill's impact on fish life was probably tremendous. But it remains unmeasured. "PPMC's ruptured pipeline empting P.M.S. (Premium Motor Spirit) into Okpe river for over one month. Amukpe community, Sapele L.G.A., Delta State, Nigeria."

  • Pipeline ExploitationBandits and corrupt government officials (is there a difference?) drain the pipelines and resell the oilVillagers collect spilled oil in small cans and resell it

  • Oil emptied into the Okpe River just above the Niger Delta for a month before any effort was made to stop it. This spill only took 1 month to stop because it took place in a larger communityA man washed soot from his face in Lagos, Nigeria, after a gas pipeline ruptured by thieves exploded. At least 260 people were killed in the blast, which spewed fire and black smoke. It was the latest oil-industry disaster in Nigeria, Africas largest petroleum producer. December 27, 2006

  • Nile River

  • Controlling the NileAswan High Dam was built in 1970 with Russian help.Created Lake Nassar

  • Problems With the DamRelocation of people; altering of traditional lifestylesRemoval of ancient artifacts and cultural treasuresLoss of ancient artifacts (now at the bottom of Lake Nasser)Decreased soil fertilityLoss of silt depositsUse of chemical fertilizersIncreased rates of malaria

  • Satellite image of the dam

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