africa. geography geography: the continent of africa – after asia, africa is the second largest...

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  • Slide 1
  • Africa
  • Slide 2
  • Geography Geography: The Continent of Africa After Asia, Africa is the second largest continent, covering 1/5 of the Earths land surface Geography is varied, certain features had a major impact on its development
  • Slide 3
  • Climate Zones Tropical rainforests cover less than 5% of the land (mostly on the equator) Trees and roots make it unstable for farming Savanna: Grassy plains, that stretch north and south of the forest zone Largest and most populated climate zone Generally has good soil and enough rainfall to support farming Irregular patterns of rainfall cause long deadly droughts Cattle herding is a common occupation
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  • The Sahara Desert: In the northern part of Africa, it is the worlds largest desert Size and harsh terrain limited movement The Kalahari & the Namib are in the south Smaller but equally forbidding Mediterranean Coast of the North and South Fertile farmland
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  • Movement Africa is surrounded by Oceans and Seas Rivers Zambezi, Congo, Niger, and Nile all serve as open highways Despite some geographic barriers, people were able to migrate, both within Africa & to neighboring continents Red Sea & Indian Ocean linked Africa to the Middle East North Africa allowed for travel to Europe
  • Slide 6
  • Resources Wealth of minerals has spurred trade in many regions Salt, Iron, Gold & Copper In the 1800s, desire for Gold and Diamonds was once cause that led Europeans to seek control of territories in Africa More recently, nations such as Nigeria and Angola have exported large quantities of oil
  • Slide 7
  • Migration of Peoples Archaeologists have uncovered evidence to pinpoint the Great Rift Valley of East Africa, as the home of the earliest people Gradually their descendants, traveled to almost every corner of the Earth
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  • Stone Age Cultures In Africa, Paleolithic people developed skills as hunters and gathers By 5500BC, Neolithic farmers had learned to cultivate the Nile Valley & to domesticate animals Settled into permanent villages that eventually supported the great civilization of Ancient Egypt Farming spread across North Africa Neolithic villages even appeared in the Sahara region (At the time, it was a well watered zone) Ancient paintings show the Sahara filled with forests and rivers
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  • The Sahara Dries Out About 2500BC, climate change dried out the Sahara As the land became parched the desert spread This process of desertification, had continued to the present, devouring thousands of areas of cropland each year As the region dried, people retreated Some moved North to the Mediterranean coast, others migrated south to the Savannah or Rain Forests
  • Slide 10
  • The Nile Kingdom of Nubia Also referred to as Kush, was located in present day Sudan Archaeologists & historians have just begun to document shifting tides of Nubias 4000 years old history Nubia and Egypt From time to time, ambitious Egyptian pharaohs subdued Nubia, but Nubia would always gain their independence As a result of conquest & trade, Nubian rulers adopted many Egyptian traditions Built palaces & pyramids, modeled on Egyptian styles
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  • North Africa in the Ancient World Early African civilizations had strong ties to the Mediterranean World Trade linked Egypt with Greece and Mesopotamia Later Egypt was ruled by the Greeks and the Romans
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  • Carthage Rose as the great North African power Wealth came from trade Created by Phoenician traders, Carthage came to dominate the Western Mediterranean Between 800BC-146BC, it forged an Empire that stretched from Maghreb (present day Tunisia, Algeria & Morocco) to southern Spain & Sicily As Rome expanded, territorial & trade rivalries erupted between the two powers Despite efforts of Hannibal, Rome eventually crushed Carthage
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  • Roman Rule Romans built roads, dams, aqueducts & cities across North Africa Imported lions and other fierce animals from North Africa, to do battle with Gladiators Also provided Roman soldiers Christianity spread to cities of North Africa
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  • Camel Revolutionizes Trade By 200AD, Camels had been brought to North Africa from Asia Traders had earlier made attempts across the desert in horse drawn carriages Camel caravans created new trade networks Spread of Islam In the 600s Arab armies carried Islam into North Africa Islam replaced Christianity, which was the dominant religion of North Africa Arabic replaced Latin as the language North African traders carried Islam to West Africa
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  • Kingdoms of West Africa The West African Landscape When the Sahara dried out, Neolithic people migrated southward into Western Savanna Farmers grew beans, melons, & a wide variety of cereal grains By 100, settled farming villages were expanding along the Senegal & Niger rivers around Lake Chad In time some villages grew into towns
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  • Trading Patterns Villages traded any surplus food they produced Gradually, a trade network linked the Savannah to forest lands in the south Then funneled goods across the Sahara to the Mediterranean and the Middle East From West Africa caravans crossed the Sahara, carrying leather goods, Kola nuts, cotton cloth and slaves Gold For Salt: Gold and Salt dominated the Sahara trade Gold was plentiful in present day Ghana, Nigeria, and Senegal Salt, from West Africa, is an abundance in the Sahara Needed to prevent dehydration, preserve food Built homes from Salt Blocks
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  • Trading Kingdoms of West Africa Ghana King was semi-divine figure Dispensed justice, kept order, had a huge army of foot soldiers with Calvary Women in Ghana had a high status & played an active role in the economic life of the empire Some held positions in the government
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  • Influence of Islam Muslim merchants formed their own communities Islam spread slowly at first The King employed Muslims as counselors and officials Muslims introduced their written language, coinage, business methods and styles of architecture City dwellers adopted Islam
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  • Mali Greatest Emperor was Mansa Musa Came to the throne in 1312 Expanded Malis borders westward to the Atlantic Ocean For 25 years he worked to restore peace and order in his empire Converted to Islam and based his system of justice on the Quran Didnt adopt all customs, women were not secluded to the home
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  • The Emperors Hajj Journeyed across the Sahara Musa was accompanied by 500 slaves, each bringing a Gold staff Had 100 camels decorated with gold Musa spent so lavishly that the value of Gold in Cairo dropped for 10 years Finally got to Arabia, reaching Mecca and visited the Kaaba and prayed Made long journey back across the Sahara to Mali The Hajj had taken over a year
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  • Results of the Hajj Mansa Musa showed his devotion to Islam Made new trading and diplomatic ties with Muslim states, such as, Egypt and Morocco Returned home with scholars and artists Newcomers introduced Arab styles in the palaces and Mosques of Mali Word of Malis enormous wealth spread across the Muslim World European rulers developed an interest in African Gold Recently began using Gold coins
  • Slide 22
  • Songhai In the 1400s, civil wars weakened Mali By 1450 a new West African Kingdom, Songhai had emerged Sonni Ali used his powerful army to forge the largest state that had ever existed in West Africa Did not adhere to practices of Islam Followed traditional beliefs Askia Muhammad became Emperor after Sonnis death Set up a Muslim dynasty
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  • Further expanded the territory of Songhai and improved government Set up a bureaucracy with separate departments for farming, army, & the treasury The King appointed officials to supervise each department Also made a pilgrimage to Mecca Prospered until 1586, due to civil war Ruler of Morocco sent his armies south to seize the West African Gold mines Moroccans' were unable to rule an empire across the Sahara
  • Slide 24
  • Trading Kingdoms of East Africa Axum Ruled: 900BC- 600 Religion: Christianity Traded: Ivory, hides, rhinoceros horns, fur, slaves, and gold Great Zimbabwe- Great Stone Building Ruled: 900-1500 Religion: God-King Traded: Gold
  • Slide 25
  • Ethiopia Ruled: 1275-1550 Religion: Christian Traded same as the Axumiles Were their ancestors City States: Mogadishu, Kilwa, Zanzibar Ruled: 1000 International trade created a mix of cultures Traded with Arabia Blend of cultures created the language, Swahili
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  • The Kingdom of Kongo Reached its height in 1500s Consisted of many villages grouped in districts and provinces Governed by officials appointed by the king Each village had its own chief King was chosen by a board of electors and governed traditional laws Portuguese eventually obtained many of their slaves from the Kongo


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