chapter 1 edited

Download Chapter 1 Edited

Post on 31-Aug-2014




3 download

Embed Size (px)



Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING Background of the Study Writing is not for turning out cookie-cutter essays in AP Lit & Comp. Its not for texting friends, keeping diaries, or even for getting a better SAT score. Writing is important because its used extensively in higher education and in the workplace. If students dont know how to express themselves in writing, they wont be able to communicate well with professors, employers, peers, or just about anyone else (Walsh, 2010) In the global setting, an article by Friess (2003) in USA Today stated The National Commission conducted federal writing tests to students. On the writing tests, only one of four students ranked as "proficient." Colleges and corporate leaders complain about the poor writing they see. About 17% of college freshmen require remedial writing classes: College officials say writing tops the list of the $1 billion a year they spend on remedial courses. In the national setting, Masangya and Lozada (2009) researched relationship between the language exposure and errors in English Essays of High School students in Southern Luzon which states that there is much to be regarded with the writing skills of secondary learners. The error that were acquired by the respondents on their essays show how this writing skill at times maybe overlooked. The results manifested that as language learners expose themselves on other mediums of language (media, literature and technology) and active participation from teachers, parents as well as peers will help them in


sentence formation and standard structure thus lessening errors on their written works. In the local setting, according to the research study of Casas, Deguito, Geraldino, and Gomez (2005) found that the level of writing skills of male and female grade six pupils of Bago elementary school was below average. This means that pupils have problems in their writing skills. Free voluntary reading and writing skills are developed through the habit of continuous reading. Writing is a very important tool in studying. For this reason, the researchers are encouraged to conduct a study that will determine the extent of free voluntary reading and writing skills of 3rd year English major students. Statement of the Problem The study is conducted in order to find out the relationship between free voluntary reading and writing skills of 3rd year English students in the College of Teacher Education, University of Mindanao. Specifically, it sought answers to the following questions: 1. What is the extent of free voluntary reading of 3rd year English majors in the College of Teacher Education, University of Mindanao in terms of:1.1 Silent reading,

1.2 Reading out loud? 2. What is the extent of writing skills of 3 rd year English majors in the College of Teacher Education, University of Mindanao in terms of:2.1 Content,

3 2.2 Organization, 2.3 Vocabulary, and

2.4 Language? 3. Is there a significant relationship between free voluntary reading and writing skills in the College of Teacher Education, University of Mindanao? Hypothesis of the Study The study will test the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance which states that there is no significant relationship between free voluntary reading and writing skills of the 3rd year English major students in the College of Teacher Education, University of Mindanao. Review of Related Literature Readings and other pertinent information are presented in this section. This is to establish a clear framework of the concepts and principles of the variables under study. Free Voluntary Reading Knulst and Kraaykamp (2000) using data that was initially collected in the 1950s have one of the older definitions of free voluntary reading. In their

retroactive review of forty years of free voluntary reading data, free voluntary reading is a proportion of the amount of time that is spent reading, as a part of the amount of time daily devoted to free voluntary activities outside of work or school. (30) Knulst and Kraaykamp (2000) were concerned with teens over the age of 12 and all ages of adults, so their definition applies to both adult and teen


readers and is the only one to be so comprehensive in terms of age. In terms of reading materials, books, magazines and newspapers only were considered part of the total reading count. In support Moyer (2005) and Moyer (2007) uses the term free voluntary reading as inclusive of fiction reading, pleasure reading and recreational reading. As this work was done with adults and all the research used in the literature review was exclusive to adult readers, issues to relate to school promoted free voluntary reading were never addressed. Free voluntary reading was assumed to be any reading (usually fiction) done outside of work, or any reading activities pursued as a hobby. In addition, Moyer states that it is important to clearly define free voluntary reading in terms of both teen and adult readers. He defines free voluntary

reading as the following: the reading or listening to any texts, in the reader has some element of control over text choice, and are read as part of as an enjoyable free voluntary time activity. Free voluntary reading is usually done for enjoyment, but that does not mean that free voluntary reading does not include learning as a purpose. For many readers the information they learn while free voluntary reading is an important outcome of free voluntary reading (Moyer 2007, Ross, 2000). Other free voluntary readers enjoy reading informational materials such as hobby magazines or newspapers, or the many types of narrative nonfiction. Free

voluntary reading always includes the option to learn from the reading materials.


More recently, Hughes-Hassell and Rodge (2007) in their study of urban adolescents, define free voluntary reading as: the reading students choose to do on their own, as opposed to reading that is assigned to them. Also referred to as leisure reading, spare time reading, recreational reading, independent reading, reading outside of school, and self-selected reading, leisure reading involves personal choice, choosing what one wants to read, and reading widely from a variety of sourcesnot just books. Hughes-Hassell and Rodge have the most comprehensive definition as they count anything in which students are reading text, whether on a printed page or on a screen. Their counts of leisure reading are the most

comprehensive as they include all the leisure time literacy activities in which 21 st century teenagers regularly engage. Again their definition is limited to in school teen readers, but could easily be expanded to college age students and/or working adults. Silent Reading. One reasonable definition of fluency in silent reading is the ability to read with sustained attention and concentration, ease and comfort, at adequate reading rates (for various grade levels) and with good understanding stated by Taylor, S. (2002). One is then led to ask what factors permit sustained attention and ease and comfort in reading. Silent reading comes with sustained silent reading. Bryan, Fawson, and Reutzel (2003) state that sustained silent reading is a period of uninterrupted silent reading. Many schools use SSR in place of other reading programs to promote reading. They added that this sustained silent reading (SSR) is a form of


school-based recreational reading, or free voluntary reading, where students read silently in a designated time period every day in school. An underlying assumption of SSR is that students learn to read by reading constantly. Successful models of SSR typically allow students to select their own books and require neither testing for comprehension nor book reports. Schools have implemented SSR under a variety of names, such as "Drop Everything and Read (DEAR)" or "Free Uninterrupted Reading (FUR)". The National Reading Panel report notes that silent reading is widely believed to improve reading achievement. Stephen Krashen, educator and outspoken advocate for SSR, believes that children need to practice reading more to become better readers and improve their overall literacy. He asserts that only one method of improving reading ability really works: engaging in a great deal of interesting, comprehensible reading (Krashen, 2009). While the report mentions that hundreds of correlational studies show that reading more improves reading skills, the NRP Panel warns that correlation is not causation; in other words, while students who read more frequently are better readers, perhaps better readers simply choose to read more. Reading out loud. Sample (2011) defined reading out loud or reading aloud as pedagogically and historically aligned with the realm of culture in which it is legitimate to read texts aloudthe realm of the sacred, the rite of the scripture, the ritual of someone we presume to be intellectually and spiritually superior exulting and professing before the masses. Which explains why we


deem it acceptable for ourselves to read passages aloud in class, so long as it is done in a tremulous, dramatic voice A simple activity that has the effect of arousing student interest in a particular book or author is oral reading by the teacher (or by students who have rehearsed ahead of time what they will read). Primary grade teachers seem to be most prone to engage in this activity, but teachers at intermediate, middle, and secondary levels have employed this approach effectively. Students of all ages seem to enjoy listening to a skilful presentation of good literature. By choosing carefully what to share, a teacher can expose children of various reading abilities to literature they might not select on their own. Through discussion and explanation, student attention can be focused on the subtleties of

characterization, plot development, use of language,