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Grammar

1. Reviewing Parts of Speech2. Basic Sentence Parts and Patterns3. Phrases and Clauses4. Avoiding Sentence ErrorsObjectives1. Review and identify words as parts of speech2. Identify the appropriate subject and predicate in the sentence.3. Locate subjects in different types of sentences.4. Classify complements as direct object, indirect object, object complement, predicate nominative, and predicate adjective.5. Recall the different sentence patterns6. Restructure sentence using fish bone diagram in diagramming sentence patterns.7. Identify the different types of phrases and their function in a sentence.8. Determine the different types of clauses and their functions9. Determine the different types of sentence according to structure10. Rewrite sentence using fish bone diagram.

CHAPTER 1REVIEWING PARTS OF SPEECHThis chapter will review the eight parts of speech and show you how to determine the part of speech of any word in the sentence.Many words change from one part of speech to another as their meaning change from one sentence to another.Example:Alert - an adjective. It gives a vivid description to a certain personAlertness - a noun. It is the state of being alert.

Identifying Parts of SpeechThe function of a word may change from one sentence to another sentence. The way a word is used in the sentence determines what part of speech it is.

The Eight Parts of SpeechParts of SpeechQuestion to Ask YourselfExamples

NounDoes the word name a person, place or thing?Our visit to the Mines View Park delighted Rosa.

PronounDoes the word stands for noun?They gave some to him.

VerbDoes the word tell what someone or something did?Does the word link one word to another word?Does the word show that something exists?They played basketball.The woman was a lawyer.

The family is here.

AdjectiveDoes the word tell what kind, which one, how many, or how much?

Those three bananas are unusual colors.

AdverbDoes the word tell where when, in what manner, or to what extent?Go home.Leave now.Drive very slowlyI am thoroughly tired.

PrepositionIs the word a part of phrase that includes a noun or pronoun?Near our house, the carnival was in full swing.

ConjunctionDoes the word connect other words in a sentence or between phrases?Both you and I will go because they need more people, besides, it will be fun.

InterjectionDoes the word express feeling or emotion and function independently in the sentence?Hey! Give me that.Ouch! That hurt.

POINTS TO REMEMBER

A NOUN names a person, place, or thing. A PRONOUN stands for a noun. A VERB shows action, condition, and existence. An ADVERB modifies a verb, adjective, and other adverbs. An ADJECTIVE modifies a noun or pronoun. A PREPOSITION relates a noun or pronoun that appears with it to the other word. A CONJUNCTION connects word or a group of words. And, INTERJECTION expresses emotions.

EXERCISE:Identify the parts of speech of the two underlined words in each sentence.1. The garden hose should be near the rose garden.2. We run the dogs once each day in the dog run out back.3. I dont like either, but I must pick either one or the other.4. I will not iron with this iron.5. The chair fell over and then rolled over the rug.6. Gracious, they were very gracious hosts at the party.7. I hope my good grade will increase your hope of getting one.8. Please turn the light on and put the groceries on the table.9. She rubbed hard on the hard surface of the table to restore its shine.10. The children comb their hair with the blue comb on the dresser.

CHAPTER 2BASIC SENTENCE PARTS AND PATTERNSLanguage is the tool people use to shape their ideas and communicate them to another. For the communication to be meaningful, a speaker or writer must choose appropriate words and put them in an order that the listener or reader can follow.

2.1 subjects and VerbsThe basic unit of thought that express meaning is the sentence. Every sentence has two essential parts, a complete subject and a complete predicate.Examples:1. Dogs bark.subject predicate2. My favorite hideout is in the old acacia tree.Subject predicate

A group of words in English is considered a sentence when it has two parts; either clearly stated or implied, a complete subject and a complete predicate. Together, those parts express a complete thought.

A complete subject is the noun, pronoun, or a group of words acting as a noun plus any modifiers that tells who or what the sentence is all about. The complete predicate is the verb or verb phrase plus any modifier and complements that tell what the complete subject of the sentence does or is.POINTS TO REMEMBER

EXERCISE:Make two columns, and then write each complete subject in the first column and each complete predicate in the second column.1. My grandmother knitted a sweater.2. The ruler was only eight inches long.3. The parachuters jumped from the plane.4. Tomorrow, I will clean out the cupboard.5. Snails and aphids ruined my garden.6. Lilting melodies filled the air around us.7. I ate chocolate cookies, roast beef, and iced pineapple at the fair.8. Yesterday, her rash had almost disappeared.9. The class dissected and studied the specimens.10. A new brand of cereal came out on the market recently.

Sentence or FragmentsExamine the following phrase and sentences.1. The gardener with the mustache2. The shoppers rushed through the store.The first example is not a sentence because it does not express a complete thought. It is only a fragment. On the other hand the second example is considered as a sentence because it expresses a complete thought.

If a group of words do not express a complete thought it is not a sentence but a fragment. On the other hand, a sentence expresses a complete thought with a complete subject and a complete predicate.POINTS TO REMEMBER

EXERCISE:Decide whether each item is a sentence or a fragment. If it is a sentence, write sentence. If it is a fragment, rewrite it to make it a sentence.1. Sang a traditional melody.2. A fierce wind tore at the tree.3. Around the next bend.4. A persistent burglar alarm.5. Dodged the speeding ball.6. Inhaled the fragrance of the abundant wild flowers.7. An invasion from outer space was the movies theme.8. A safe speed down the hill and around the sharp turn.9. Conscientious drivers always buckle their seat belts.10. Handcuffed the suspects in an armed robbery.

Simple Subjects and PredicatesEach complete subject and complete predicate contains a word or a group of words that is essential to the sentence. Without these elements, known as the simple subject and simple predicate, a sentence is considered incomplete.

Simple Subjects and Simple PredicatesSimple subjectsSimple predicates

AnaSmiles

YouWalked away

The simple subject is the essential noun, pronoun, or group of words acting as a noun that cant be left out of the complete subject.The simple predicate is the essential verb or verb phrases that cannot be left out of the complete predicate.POINTS TO REMEMBER

EXERCISE:Write the sentences; draw a vertical line between the complete subject and the complete predicate. Then underline each subject once and each verb twice.1. Our good friends breed cows on their ranch.2. The heat left us tired and uncomfortable.3. The majority of the students voted in favor of a class trip.4. I contemplated the words of Confucius.5. Many people with the red hair have freckles.6. The curtain did not rise at the scheduled time.7. The helicopters blades whipped the air around us.8. I will arrange a dental appointment tomorrow.9. My new car should arrive this week.10. The clerks in the shoe department worked overtime today.

Locating Subjects and VerbsTo find the subject, first, ask what word tells what this subject is all about? To find the verb, ask what word tells what the subject is doing.Example:1. The red lights signaled a warning.Subject verb

Compound SubjectA sentence may contain a compound subject or compound verb. The compound subjects are written in bold face and the verb was underlined.Example:1. The salt and vinegar are on the table. S1 s2 v2. Neither the dog nor the cat greeted me. S1 s2 v

Notice in the second example that it is not necessary to repeat the same helping verb twice.Example:1. She sneezed and coughed throughout the play.Sv1 v2 2. We will think about it and act soon.S v1 v2Some sentence constructions may contain both compound subjects and compound verbs.Example1. The dog and cat eyed each other, circled warily, and then advanced to combat. S1 s2 v1 v2v3POINTS TO REMEMBER

To find the subject, ask what word tells what this sentence is about.To find the verb, ask what did the subject does.A compound subject is two or more subjects that have the same verbs and are joined by a conjunction such as and or or.A compound verb is two or more verb that have the same subject joined by a conjunction such as and or or.

EXERCISE:Write the words that make up the subject and verb in each sentence, underlining the subject once and the verbs twice.1. Either Clem or Helen will win the chess tournament.2. In that race, the competitors first run and then swim.3. The cream and sugar sat on the kitchen table within reach.4. I added water, mixed the batter, and poured it into the pan.5. The flora and fauna of the Amazon forest have not yet been fully cataloged and studied by scientists.

6. She received the nomination, campaigned hard, and won.7. Carpenters, plumbers, and electricians worked here today.8. I arrived early, waited hours, and finally got a ticket.9. After school we held a meeting and elected