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    Powerpoint@lecture Slides Are Prepared By Biology Lecturer, KMPk

    mailto:point@lecturemailto:point@lecture
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    12.1 : Introduction to ecology

    12.2 : Ecosystem concept

    12.3 : Energy Flow through ecosystem

    12.4 : Biogeochemical cycles

    12.5 : Biodiversity:

    Conservation & management

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    At the end of this topic, students should be

    able to;

    Define basic terminologies:

    niche, habitat, organism, population, community,

    ecosystem, biome, biosphere.

    Explain ecosystem concept

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    12.1 INTRODUCTION TO

    ECOLOGY

    Ecology is the study of the

    interactions among organisms andbetween organisms and their physical

    environment.

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    ~ niche

    ~ habitat

    ~ organism

    ~ population

    ~ community

    ~ ecosystem

    ~ biome~ biosphere

    BASIC TERMS IN ECOLOGY

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    Niche is the status or roleof an organism in itshabitat /environment.

    Eg : Feeding behaviours

    aphid and caterpillar lives

    in same plant, but they

    have different habit ofeating, aphid suck the

    plant saps and caterpillar

    eats the leaf.

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    Habitat is the place in which anorganism lives

    characterized by its physical (abiotic) orbiotic factors that influences the life of

    the organism.

    Examples : streams, ponds, rivers andlakes.

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    The systems working together with

    complexity make up the complex living

    organism.

    ORGANISM

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    POPULATION

    Group of individuals of the same species livingtogether in particular geographic area.

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    All the different species that

    live in a place are called a

    community

    (A forest community, for

    example contains trees,

    deer, woodpeckers & fungi).

    COMMUNITY

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    A community and

    the physical

    environment in

    which it lives is

    called anecological system

    or ecosystem.

    ECOSYSTEM

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    Major terrestrial ecosystems, called biomes

    Climate controlled group of plants & animals in the

    wide area

    BIOME

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    BIOME

    Examples of biome include

    desert, tropical rain forests

    and tundra.

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    All of the communities of living things on earth

    are organized into the biosphere.

    BIOSPHERE

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    The atmosphere isthe gaseous envelopesurrounding Earth

    The hydrosphereis Earths

    supply of water (liquid and

    frozen, fresh and salty)

    The lithosphere is thesoil and rock of the

    Earths crust.

    BIOSPHERE

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    12.2 ECOSYSTEM CONCEPT

    Definition according to Odum (1969)

    Basic functional unit of nature including

    both organisms and their non-livingenvironment.

    Each interacting with other andinfluencing each others

    Both necessary for maintenance and

    development of the system.

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    Life hierarchical order

    Each living system has several levels of organization and we canalso organize organisms on the ecological level

    Biosphere

    Biome ecology

    Ecosystem study

    Community Population

    Organism biodiversity

    Organ

    Tissue

    Cell biological cell

    Protoplasm/organelle

    Gene genetic

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    ECOSYSTEM CONCEPTComponent of ecosystem