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    THE COMPUTER GENERATIONS

    Generation:

    A generation basically refers to the state of improvement in the development of aproduct.

    First Generation (1945-1956) (The Vacuum Tube Years)

    The first generation computers used vacuum tube for circulatory and magnetic drum for

    memory.

    The vacuum tube was a fragile glass device that could control and amplifying electronics

    signals.

    Large machines, occupying huge rooms.

    Very expensive to operate and consume vast energy.

    Input was based on punch card and output was displayed on printouts.

    Examples:

    UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer).

    ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator Automatic computer).

    Second Generation (1957-1963) (The era of Transistor)

    Second generation computer system took advantage of semiconductor which means thattransistor replaced the vacuum tube.

    This result in reduce physical size, fact fast computing and greater power.

    Superior to vacuum tubes, allowing computers to become smaller, faster cheaper, more

    energy efficient.

    The difference b/w vacuum tubes and transistors are: The transistors were faster and reliable than vacuum tubes.

    One transistor replaces the equivalent of 40 vacuum tubes.

    They also contain all the components of computer of modern era, like printers, tapestorage, memory, operating system and stored programs.

    Advantages:

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    More reliable

    Less heat generating.

    Better portability.

    3rd

    Generation: (1964-1970) (IC)

    3

    rdgeneration computer was made from integrated circuits which again resulted in

    reducing size, fast computing and more powerful.

    The IC combined electronic components onto a small silicon disk and scientists latter fit

    more components onto it. As a result computer became ever smaller as more components were squeezed onto the

    chip.

    Another 3rd

    generation development includes the use of operating system that allowed

    machines to perform many different programs at once. Magnetic disks were improved w.r.t storage capability. I/O devices were introduced, like printers, keyboards.

    Billions of instructions were solved in seconds.

    Easily portable.

    4th

    Generation (1971-present) (microprocessors)

    The 4

    thgeneration of computer technology is based on microprocessors.

    Microprocessors employ large scale integration (LSI) and Very large scale integration

    (VLSI) techniques to pack thousands of transistors on a single chip.

    Ultra large scale integration increases this number of transistors.

    Reliability, speed and efficiency were also increased. Microprocessor is a single chip that could do all computing and logic work.

    To bring computers to general customers.

    User friendly software packages (Windows). Homes, offices usage increased.

    Linking computers, data sharing in client/server environment.

    5th

    Generation: (A.I) (Present to Beyond)

    Scientists are working on these systems. Nano technology.

    Voice recognition.

    Superconductor technology.