ppt on generations of computer

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Computer Age: Past, Present, and Future

First Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum Tubes

Characteristics of First Generation Computers These first generation computers were based on vacuum tube technology. These first generation computers were the fastest computing devices of their times (computation time was in Milli-Seconds). These first generation computers were very large, and required a lot of space for installation. Since thousands of vacuum tubes were used, they generated a large amount of heat. Therefore, air conditioning was essential. These first generation computers were non-profitable and very slow equipments. They lack in versatility and speed. They were very expensive to operate and used a large amount of electricity.

UNIVAC at a news centre


Second Generation (1956-1963) Transistors

Main Characteristics of a second generation computer are.. Second generation computer machines were based on transistor technology. Second generation computers were smaller as compared to the first generation computers. The computational time of Second generation computers was reduced to microseconds from milliseconds. Second generation computers were more reliable and less prone to hardware failure. Hence, such computers required less frequent maintenance. Second generation computers were more portable and generated less amount of heat. Assembly language was used to program Second generation computers. Hence, programming became more time-efficient and less cumbersome. Second generation computers still require air conditioning. Manual assembly of individual components into a functional unit was still required.

IBM 7094

IBM 1401,1402,1403 & 1406

Third Generation (1964-1971) Integrated Circuits


Characteristics of Third Generation Computers Characteristics of Third Generation Computers in comparison with that of previous generation computers are Third Generation Computers were based on integrated circuit (IC) technology. Third Generation Computers were able to reduce computational time from microseconds to nanoseconds Third Generation Computers devices consumed less power and generated less heat. In some cases, air conditioning was still required. The size of Third Generation Computers was smaller as compared to previous computers Since hardware of the Third Generation Computers rarely failed, the maintenance cost for it was quite low. Extensive use of high-level language became possible in Third Generation Computers. Manual assembling of individual components was not required for Third Generation Computers, so it reduced the large requirement of labor & cost. However, for the manufacture of IC chips, highly sophisticated technologies were required Commercial production became easier and cheaper.

DID YOU KNOW...? An integrated circuit (IC) is a small electronic device made out of a semiconductor material. The first integrated circuit was developed in the 1950s by Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments and Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor.

IBM 360

Fourth Generation (1971-Present) Microprocessors

Characteristics of Fourth Generation Computers Fourth generation computers are microprocessor based systems. Fourth generation computers are very small. Fourth Generation computers are the cheapest among all other computer generations. Fourth generation computers are portable and quite reliable. Fourth generation computers do not require air conditioning since they generate negligible amount of heat. Minimum maintenance is required for Fourth generation computers since hardware failure is negligible for them. The production cost of Fourth generation computers is very low GUI and pointing devices enables users to learn to use the computer quickly. Interconnections of computers leads to better communication and resource sharing. Fourth generation computers are very powerful than previous generations and can easily do more calculation or can run more programs at a time and for more hours.


Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniac inventors of the Apple II and founders of Apple Computer.


Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond) Artificial Intelligence

Characteristics of Fifth Generation Computers Combinations of some or all of the following technologies: -extremely large scale integration -parallel processing -high speed logic and memory chips -high performance, micro-miniaturization -voice/data integration; knowledge-based platforms -artificial intelligence, expert systems -virtual reality generation -satellite links

iPad II