Computer Organisation, Generations & Current Trend

Download Computer  Organisation, Generations  &  Current Trend

Post on 11-Jan-2016

14 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Computer Organisation, Generations & Current Trend. Prof. Sujata Rao Session 2. The C P U. Control Unit. Main Memory. Input. Arithmetic & Logic Unit. Output. Auxiliary & Backup Store. Store. Storage Device. Retrive. Display. Display. Output. Keyboard. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

TRANSCRIPT

  • Computer Organisation,Generations & Current TrendProf. Sujata RaoSession 2

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    The C P U StoreRetriveOutputStorage DeviceAuxiliary & Backup StoreDisplayCentral Processing Unit ( C P U )KeyboardDisplay

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Main MemoryMain MemoryControl UnitArithmetic & Logic UnitRandom Access Memory ( R A M ) for Read & WriteRead Only Memory (R O M )O/SAppln PrgmExec PrgmBIOSSupervisory MemoryUser memory

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    R O MControl UnitArithmetic & Logic UnitMain MemoryRandom Access Memory ( R A M ) for Read & Write(R O M )O/SAppln PrgmExec PrgmBIOSSupervisory MemoryUser memory 1. Masked ROM 2. P R O M 3. E P R O M 4. E E P R O M D A T A

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    4 Type of R O MMasked R O M A bit pattern is permanently recorded.Specialised Manufacturing Process.Very Expensive

    P R O M - Programmable Read Only MemoryCan be programmed by UserUsing PROM Prgm can burn the fuses according to the bit pattern - Burning the PROM

    E P R O M Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory.Info stored is Semi-Permanent. Can be erased by exposing the memory to Ultra Violet Rays.Can be programmed again Most commonly used

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    E E P R O M Electricity Erasable - Programmable Read Only MemorySimilar to EPROMInfo can be altered using electrical signalsManufacturing process is quite complexNot commonly UsedVery Expensive

    E A P R O M - Electricity Alterable - Programmable Read Only Memory

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Types of ComputerAnalog - Solves Problem by operating on contineous Variables.Digital - performs arithmetic, logical & comparative functions on info in digital formCombines features of Analog & Digital

  • Types Of Hardware & SoftwareProf. Sujata RaoSession 2

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Abacus

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Generation of Computers1st - Tubes & Vales, large in size, Slow operating Speed, Limited Programming Capacity, Short Life Span, Generated lot heat

    2nd - Transistors , smaller in size, faster speed, lesser in cost & High reliability 3rd - Semiconductors, CHIP made of ICs in mid 60s, increased ALU capability, ability to perform parallel operation, improvement of instructions, much smaller , reduction in cost drastically 4th - silicon chips, high resolution monitors, graphics improved,speed improved, size & cost reduced.

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Super Grids Made by universities and the military (Virginia Tech with 1100 Apple G5 dual processors, for example) and other clusters of less powerful machines with Linux special OSs for parallel processing.

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Types of ComputerGrid Computer

    Super Computer

    Mainframes

    Mini Computer Microcomputer

    Terminal Embedded Computer

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Super Grids Made by universities and the military (Virginia Tech with 1100 Apple G5 dual processors, for example) and other clusters of less powerful machines with Linux special OSs for parallel processing.

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Super ComputerCDC 6600 designed by Seymour Cray (First commercially successful supercomputer-speed of 9 megaflops)

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    SupercomputersCray 1 - 1976 (courtesy Cray Inc.) Cray Research-CRAY I vector architecture (designed by Seymour Cray, shaped the computer industry for years to come),

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Thinking Machines, The Connection Machine, as this model is called, contains 64,000 CPUs

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Players in the supercomputing arenaIn 40 years (2004) there are but a few players left in the supercomputing arena:Cray Dell HP (absorbed: Amdahl, Compaq who ate Digital) IBM NEC SGI Sun

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    CompaniesIBM 3090 VPF.Evans Sutherland ES-1,Fujitsu VP-400E, NSFnet established Apollo, Ardent, and Stellar Graphics Supercomputers,Hitachi S-820/80, Hypercube simulation on a LAN at ORNL,CRAY Y-MP,Tim Berners-Lee: World Wide Web project at CERNSeymour Cray: Founds Cray Computer Corp.-Begins CRAY 3 using gallium arsenide chipsBell Labs - Optical ProcessorsIntell - Paralell Processors

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    MainframesMark I mainframe (1950's)Eniac (1946) BINAC(1960's)

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    MainframeMainframe is an industry term for a large computer. The name comes from the way the machine is build up: all units (processing, communication etc.) were hung into a frame. Thus the main computer is build into a frame, therefore: Mainframe

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    ManufacturersAmdahl, Burroughs, CDC Cray, Fujitsu, Hitachi, Hewlett Packard, IBM, Intel, NEC, SGI, Sun, Texas Instruments, Thinking Machines Univac

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    CharecteristicsA mainframe has 1 to 16 CPU's (modern machines more) Memory ranges from 128 Mb over 8 Gigabyte on line RAM Its processing power ranges from 80 over 550 Mips It has often different cabinets for Storage I/O RAM

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Separate processes (program) for task management program management job management serialization catalogs inter address space communication

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Characteristicscentralized computing opposite from distributed computing. Meaning all computing takes (physically) place on the mainframe itself: the processor section .

    main purpose is to run commercial applications of Fortune 1000 businesses and other large-scale computing purposes.

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    IBM 4381 mainframe processor from 1985

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    The First Generation, 1951-1956 Marked the beginning of commercial computing. High-speed Vacuum Tube Computers operated without operating system. Operators who would select the job to be run, initially load the system program, run the users program, and then select another job, and so forth.

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Programs were written in high level, procedure-oriented languages. Application programs were run one at a time,Translators with absolute computer addresses. Executable program were made by combining object program along with any existing library programs. There was no provision for moving a program to different location in storage for any reason.

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Development of programming languages was moving away from the basic machine languages;1st assembly language, and 2nd procedure oriented languages, COBOLThe most significant being the development of FORTRAN & PASCAL.

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    The second Generation, 1956-19642nd Gen computer hardware were made of Transistors which replaced the vacuum tubes.Important changes in hardware and software architectures occurred during this period.The computer systems were Punch Card and Tape-oriented Systems. Random access devices like Disks came to use towards the end of the second generation.Program processing was done by large centralized computers operated under mono programmed batch processing operating systems.

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    Programs were executed by processing the Machine Instructions in a strictly sequential order. CPU (high speed electronic component ) I/O operations which involved mechanical devices (card readers and tape drives) that were slower. The second generation was a period of intense operating system development.Researchers began to experiment with multi-programming and multiprocessing.

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    The Third Generation, 1964-1979Officially began in 1964 with IBMs announcement of its System/360 family of computers. Hardware technology began to use integrated circuits (ICs)Yielded significant advantages in both speed and economy. Operating system were development which handled multiprogramming. These O/S could handle I/O buffering in the form of spooling operating systems.

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    These systems reader could move input jobs from cards to disk,System writer to move job output from disk to printer, tape, or cards. The spooling operating system in fact had multiprogramming since more than one program was resident in main storage at the same time. Users shared not only the system hardware but also its software resources and file system disk space.

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    The third generation developed both computer hardware and the accompanying operating system. During this period, the topic of operating systems became, in reality, a major element of the discipline of computing.

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    The minicomputers of the third generation.

    Examples are Microsofts DOS for IBM-compatible personal computers and UNIX for workstation.

    However, many of these desktop computers are now connected as networked or distributed systems.

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    The Fourth Generation, 1979 - Present4th generation had electronic circuits which replaced the ICs ex. the PC & the workstationThe component technology of the 3rd generation, was replaced by very large scale integration (VLSI), in the fourth generation.The inexpensive workstation-class computer capable of supporting multiprogramming and time-sharing. O/s supports personal computers and workstations too.

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    16th July 2011*CPU , Gen & Current trends

    The fourth generation had electronic circuits which replaced the ICs seen in the personal computer and the workstation. The component technology of the third generation, was replaced by very large scale integration (VLSI), in the fourth generation.We now have the inexpensive workstation-class computer capable of supporting multiprogramming and time-sharing. Hence the operating systems that supports todays personal computers and workstations look much like those which were available for the minicomputers of the third generation. Examples are Microsofts DOS for IBM-compatible personal computers and UNIX for workstation. However, many of these desktop computers are now connected as networked or distributed systems.

Recommended

View more >