5 generations of computer

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  1. 1. A5 2 AKSHAY SHARMA ANURAG SAHU ARJIT SHARMA ANUJ RAGHUWANSHI AMAL JAIN
  2. 2. 5 GENERA- TIONS MAIN LOGIC ELEMENT MEMORY EXTERNAL STORAGE DEVICES PROGRAM- MING 1ST Generation (1946-1954) VACUUM TUBES Magnetic core Punched cards Machine Language Assembly Language 2nd Generation (1955-1964) TRANSISTORS Magnetic core Magnetic tape and disks High-level Programming Languages
  3. 3. 3rd Generatio n (1964- 971) 4TH Generatio n (1971 Present) 5th Generatio n (Present & Beyond) INTEGRATED CIRCUIT Microprocessor Artificial Intelligence MOS (Metal Oxide Semiconducto r) Hard disk HARD DISK Magnetic tape and disks Printouts by printer VOICE , PRINTED, ETC. C Programming Language 4GL 5GL www.brainybetty.com 4
  4. 4. www.brainybetty.com 5 The history of computer development is often referred to in reference to the different generations of computing devices . Each of the five generations of computers is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful and more efficient and reliable computing devices.
  5. 5. www.brainybetty.com 6 ANS.- Computers can be classified into five types according to the generations i.e. time period: First Generation Computers Second Generation Computers Third Generation Computers Fourth Generation Computers Fifth Generation Computers
  6. 6. www.brainybetty.com 7 Period : 1946-54 Size : Size was equivalent to a room Language : Machine and Assembly language Main Component : Vacuum Tubes Input/output Media : Punched cards & Paper tapes Storage Media : Magnetic drum & Magnetic tape
  7. 7. www.brainybetty.com 8 Vacuum tube technology Unreliable Supported Machine language only Very costly Generate lot of heat Slow Input/output device Huge size Need of A.C. Non-portable Vaccum tube
  8. 8. www.brainybetty.com 9
  9. 9. www.brainybetty.com 10 Advantages : 1. It was only electronic computing device. 2. First device to hold memory. 3. It was able to compute mathematical calculations. Disadvantages : 1. . Too bulky i.e. large in size 2. . Vacuum tubes burn frequently 3. . They were producing heat 4. . Maintenance problems
  10. 10. Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 1 Period: 1955-64 Size: Smaller than 1st generation Language: Assembly & high level language Main Component: Transistors Input/output Media: Punched cards & printed reports Storage Media: Magnetic tape & magnetic disk Sub mitted by: A5 2nd generation
  11. 11. www.brainybetty.com 12 Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 1 Use of transistors Reliable as compared to First generation computers Smaller size as compared to First generation computers Generate less heat as compared to First generation computers Consumed less electricity as compared to First generation computers Faster than first generation computers Still very costly A.C. needed Support machine and assembly languages Transistors
  12. 12. www.brainybetty.com 13 Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 1 1 transistor = 40 Vacuum tubes
  13. 13. www.brainybetty.com 14 Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 1 Advantages : 1. . Size reduced considerably 2. . The very fast 3. . Very much reliable Disadvantages : 1. . They over heated quickly 2. . Maintenance problems
  14. 14. www.brainybetty.com 15 Period: 1965-71 Size: Disk size mini computers Language: High level language Main Component: ICs (Integrated Circuits) Input/output Media: Key to tape, key to disk & printed reports Storage Media: Magnetic tape & magnetic disk Example- IBM 360
  15. 15. IC used More reliable and Faster Smaller size Generate less heat Lesser maintenance Still costly A.C. needed Consumed lesser electricity Support high-level language www.brainybetty.com 16
  16. 16. www.brainybetty.com 17
  17. 17. www.brainybetty.com 18 Advantages : 1. . ICs are very small in size 2. . Improved performance 3. . Production cost cheap Disadvantages : 1. . ICs are sophisticated
  18. 18. Period: 1971-Present Size: Typewriter sized micro computers Language: High level language Main Component: ICs with LSI (Large Scale Integration) Input/output Media: Keyboard data entry, devices & printed reports Storage media: Magnetic disk, floppy & optical disk Example: Altair 800 A5 19
  19. 19. www.brainybetty.com 20 1 MICROCHIP = 40000 IC
  20. 20. www.brainybetty.com 21 VLSI technology used Very cheap Portable and reliable Use of PC's Very small size Pipeline processing No A.C. needed Concept of internet was introduced Great developments in the fields of networks Computers became easily available
  21. 21. www.brainybetty.com 22 Advantages : 1. . It is a compact 2. . Less power consumption 3. . Production cost is cheap Disadvantages : 1. . No artificial intelligent.
  22. 22. Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 1 www.brainybetty.com 23 Period: Present & beyond Size: Credit card size micro computers Language: Artificial intelligence language Main Component: SLSI/ULSI (Super/Ultra Large Scale Integration) Input/output Media: Tactile inputs, displays Storage Media: Optical disk & card magnetic disk Example : Robotic toys, Mobile computers
  23. 23. www.brainybetty.com 24 Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 1 ULSI technology Development of true artificial intelligence Development of Natural language processing Advancement in Parallel Processing Advancement in Superconductor technology More user friendly interfaces with multimedia features Availability of very powerful and compact computers at cheaper rates
  24. 24. www.brainybetty.com 25 Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 1 Advantages : 1. . Artificial intelligence 2. . Expert system 3. Very low cost Disadvantages : 1. Increasement in Unemployment
  25. 25. www.brainybetty.com 26 Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 1 Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 1 A5 First generation Second generation Third generation Fourth generation Fifth generation
  26. 26. www.brainybetty.com 27 Free powerpoint template: www.brainybetty.com 1
  27. 27. A5 28