the computer generations

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2. Suanpan (the number represented on this abacus is 6,302,715,408) Yazu Arithmometer. Patented in Japan in 1903. Note the lever for turning the gears of the calculator.

  • What we now call the Roman abacus was used in Babylonia as early as 2400 BC.
  • which are generally regarded as the earliest known mechanical analog computers

Earliest true hardware 3. 1801: Punched card technology IBM 407 Accounting Machine (tabulator) Punched card system of a music machine, also referred to as Book music 4. ENIAC performed ballistics trajectory calculations with 160 kW of power ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) 5. First-generation machines 6. 1. Use of vacuum tubes 2. Big & Clumsy 3. High Electricity Consumption 4. Programming in Mechanical Language 5. Larger AC were needed 6. Lot of electricity failure occured First-generation machines(1942-1960) Other computers of first generation are: UNIVAC-1, IBM-701 and IBM-650, Datamatrix-1000, EDSAC, MARK II, MARK III. 7.

  • Limitations of First Generation Computers
  • These computers contained vacuum tubes and were costly.
  • The consumption of electricity was much more and heating effect was more. Cooling was necessary during and after use.
  • The speed of these computers was very slow.
  • They were very large in size.
  • The life span of these computers was short and were not very reliable.
  • The level of accuracy was low.
  • Fault-detection was very difficult.

8. 1. Transistors were used 2. Core Memory was developed 3. Faster than First Generation computers 4. First Operating System was developed 5. Programming was in Machine Language & Aseembly Language 6. Magnetic tapes & discs were used 7. Computers became smaller in size than the First Generation computers 8. Computers consumed less heat & consumed less electricity FEATURES OF SECOND GENERATION (1960-1965) Computers of Second Generation: CDC-3600, IB-700, IBM-1401, ICL-1901, UNIVAC-1108, IBM-7094, RCA-501, CDC-1604 9. 1. Integrated circuits developed 2. Power consumption was low 3. SSI & MSI Technology was used 4. High level languages were used Computers of Third Generation:CDC-1700, ICL-2903, PDP-11/45 THIRD GENERATION FEATURES (1965-1975) 10. 1. LSI & VLSI Technology used 2. Development of Portable Computers 3. RAID Technology of data storage 4. Used in virtual reality, multimedia, simulation 5. Computers started in use for Data Communication 6. Different types of memories with very high accessing speed & storage capacity

  • Features of computers of Fourth Generation
  • Size is very small and speed is very high.
  • Perform job for a very long duration.
  • Cheap as compared to previous generations.
  • Memory and data processing capacity is very large.
  • Minimum energy (electricity) consumption.
  • Heating effect very low.

Computers of Fourth Generation: Intel-4004, Apples I & II, DCM-Spectrum FOURTH GENERATION COMPUTERS(1975 To date) 11. 1. Used in parallel processing 2. Used superconductors 3. Used in speech recognition 4. Used in intelligent robots 5. Used in artificial intelligence FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTERS 12. 13.