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  • EECC550 - ShaabanEECC550 - Shaaban#1 Lec # 1 Winter 2001 12-4-2001

    Computer Hardware GenerationsComputer Hardware Generations The First Generation, 1946-59: Vacuum Tubes, Relays,

    Mercury Delay Lines: ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer): First

    electronic computer, 18000 vacuum tubes, 1500 relays, 5000additions/sec.

    First stored program computer: EDSAC (Electronic Delay StorageAutomatic Calculator).

    The Second Generation, 1959-64: Discrete Transistors.

    The Third Generation, 1964-75: Small and Medium-ScaleIntegrated (MSI) Circuits.

    The Fourth Generation, 1975-Present: The Microcomputer.VLSI-based Microprocessors.

  • EECC550 - ShaabanEECC550 - Shaaban#2 Lec # 1 Winter 2001 12-4-2001

    The Von-The Von-NeumannNeumann Computer Model Computer Model Partitioning of the computing engine into components:

    Central Processing Unit (CPU): Control Unit (instruction decode, sequencingof operations), Datapath (registers, arithmetic and logic unit, buses).

    Memory: Instruction and operand storage.

    Input/Output (I/O).

    The stored program concept: Instructions from an instruction set arefetched from a common memory and executed one at a time.

    -Memory

    (instructions, data)

    Control

    DatapathregistersALU, buses

    CPUComputer System

    Input

    Output

    I/O Devices

  • EECC550 - ShaabanEECC550 - Shaaban#3 Lec # 1 Winter 2001 12-4-2001

    CPU Machine Instruction Execution StepsCPU Machine Instruction Execution Steps

    Instruction

    Fetch

    Instruction

    Decode

    Operand

    Fetch

    Execute

    Result

    Store

    Next

    Instruction

    Obtain instruction from program storage

    Determine required actions and instruction size

    Locate and obtain operand data

    Compute result value or status

    Deposit results in storage for later use

    Determine successor or next instruction

  • EECC550 - ShaabanEECC550 - Shaaban#4 Lec # 1 Winter 2001 12-4-2001

    Hardware Components of Any ComputerHardware Components of Any Computer

    Processor (active)

    Computer

    ControlUnit

    Datapath

    Memory(passive)

    (where programs, data live whenrunning)

    Devices

    Input

    Output

    Keyboard, Mouse, etc.

    Display, Printer, etc.

    Disk

    Five classic components of all computers:Five classic components of all computers:

    1. Control Unit; 2. 1. Control Unit; 2. Datapath Datapath; 3. Memory; 4. Input; 5. Output; 3. Memory; 4. Input; 5. Output}

    Processor

  • EECC550 - ShaabanEECC550 - Shaaban#5 Lec # 1 Winter 2001 12-4-2001

    CPU OrganizationCPU Organization Datapath Design:

    Capabilities & performance characteristics of principalFunctional Units (FUs):

    (e.g., Registers, ALU, Shifters, Logic Units, ...)

    Ways in which these components are interconnected (busesconnections, multiplexors, etc.).

    How information flows between components.

    Control Unit Design: Logic and means by which such information flow is controlled.

    Control and coordination of FUs operation to realize the targetedInstruction Set Architecture to be implemented (can either beimplemented using a finite state machine or a microprogram).

    Hardware description with a suitable language, possiblyusing Register Transfer Notation (RTN).

  • EECC550 - ShaabanEECC550 - Shaaban#6 Lec # 1 Winter 2001 12-4-2001

    A TypicalA TypicalMicroprocessorMicroprocessorLayout:Layout:

    The IntelThe IntelPentium ClassicPentium Classic

  • EECC550 - ShaabanEECC550 - Shaaban#7 Lec # 1 Winter 2001 12-4-2001

    A TypicalA TypicalMicroprocessorMicroprocessorLayout:Layout:

    The IntelThe IntelPentium ClassicPentium Classic

  • EECC550 - ShaabanEECC550 - Shaaban#8 Lec # 1 Winter 2001 12-4-2001

    A Typical PersonalComputer (PC) System BoardLayout (90% of all computingsystems worldwide).

    CPU

    Memory

    I/O: Mass Storage

    I/O: Misc

    I/O

  • EECC550 - ShaabanEECC550 - Shaaban#9 Lec # 1 Winter 2001 12-4-2001

    Computer System ComponentsComputer System Components

    Proc

    CachesSystem Bus

    Memory

    I/O Devices:

    Controllers

    adapters

    DisksDisplaysKeyboards

    Networks

    NICs

    I/O Buses

  • EECC550 - ShaabanEECC550 - Shaaban#10 Lec # 1 Winter 2001 12-4-2001

    Performance Increase of Workstation-ClassPerformance Increase of Workstation-ClassMicroprocessors 1987-1997Microprocessors 1987-1997

    Integer SPEC92 PerformanceInteger SPEC92 Performance

  • EECC550 - ShaabanEECC550 - Shaaban#11 Lec # 1 Winter 2001 12-4-2001

    Year

    1000

    10000

    100000

    1000000

    10000000

    100000000

    1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

    i80386

    i4004

    i8080

    Pentium

    i80486

    i80286

    i8086

    Microprocessor Logic DensityMicroprocessor Logic Density

    MooresMoores Law: Law:2X transistors/ChipEvery 1.5 years

    Alpha 21264: 15 millionPentium Pro: 5.5 millionPowerPC 620: 6.9 millionAlpha 21164: 9.3 millionSparc Ultra: 5.2 million

    Moores Law

  • EECC550 - ShaabanEECC550 - Shaaban#12 Lec # 1 Winter 2001 12-4-2001

    Increase of Capacity of VLSI Dynamic RAM ChipsIncrease of Capacity of VLSI Dynamic RAM Chips

    size

    Year

    1000

    10000

    100000

    1000000

    10000000

    100000000

    1000000000

    1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

    year size(Megabit)

    1980 0.06251983 0.251986 11989 41992 161996 641999 2562000 1024

    1.55X/yr,or doubling every 1.6years

  • EECC550 - ShaabanEECC550 - Shaaban#13 Lec # 1 Winter 2001 12-4-2001

    Computer Technology Trends:Computer Technology Trends:

    Rapid ChangeRapid Change Processor:

    2X in speed every 1.5 years; 1000X performance in last decade.

    Memory: DRAM capacity: > 2x every 1.5 years; 1000X size in last decade.

    Cost per bit: Improves about 25% per year.

    Disk: Capacity: > 2X in size every 1.5 years.

    Cost per bit: Improves about 60% per year.

    200X size in last decade.

    Expected State-of-the-art PC by end of year 2001 : Processor clock speed: > 2500 MegaHertz (2.5 GigaHertz)

    Memory capacity: > 1000 MegaByte (1 GigaBytes)

    Disk capacity: > 100 GigaBytes (0.1 TeraBytes)

  • EECC550 - ShaabanEECC550 - Shaaban#14 Lec # 1 Winter 2001 12-4-2001

    A Simplified View of TheA Simplified View of TheSoftware/Hardware Hierarchical LayersSoftware/Hardware Hierarchical Layers

  • EECC550 - ShaabanEECC550 - Shaaban#15 Lec # 1 Winter 2001 12-4-2001

    Hierarchy of Computer ArchitectureHierarchy of Computer Architecture

    I/O systemInstr. Set Proc.

    Compiler

    OperatingSystem

    Application

    Digital DesignCircuit Design

    Instruction Set Architecture

    Firmware

    Datapath & Control

    Layout

    Software

    Hardware

    Software/Hardware Boundary

    High-Level Language Programs

    Assembly LanguagePrograms

    Microprogram

    Register TransferNotation (RTN)

    Logic Diagrams

    Circuit Diagrams

    Machine Language Program

  • EECC550 - ShaabanEECC550 - Shaaban#16 Lec # 1 Winter 2001 12-4-2001

    Levels of Program RepresentationLevels of Program RepresentationHigh Level Language

    Program

    Assembly LanguageProgram

    Machine LanguageProgram

    Control SignalSpecification

    Compiler

    Assembler

    Machine Interpretation

    temp = v[k];

    v[k] = v[k+1];

    v[k+1] = temp;

    lw$15, 0($2)lw$16, 4($2)sw$16, 0($2)sw$15, 4($2)

    0000 1001 1100 0110 1010 1111 0101 10001010 1111 0101 1000 0000 1001 1100 0110 1100 0110 1010 1111 0101 1000 0000 1001 0101 1000 0000 1001 1100 0110 1010 1111

    ALUOP[0:3]

  • EECC550 - ShaabanEECC550 - Shaaban#17 Lec # 1 Winter 2001 12-4-2001

    A Hierarchy of Computer DesignA Hierarchy of Computer DesignLevel Name Modules Primitives Descriptive Media

    1 Electronics Gates, FFs Transistors, Resistors, etc. Circuit Diagrams

    2 Logic Registers, ALUs ... Gates, FFs . Logic Diagrams

    3 Organization Processors, Memories Registers, ALUs Register Transfer

    Notation (RTN)

    4 Microprogramming Assembly Language Microinstructions Microprogram

    5 Assembly language OS Routines Assembly language Assembly Language

    programming Instructions Programs

    6 Procedural Applications OS Routines High-level Language

    Programming Drivers .. High-level Languages Programs

    7 Application Systems Procedural Constructs Problem-Oriented

    Programs

    Low Level - Hardware

    Firmware

    High Level - Software

  • EECC550 - ShaabanEECC550 - Shaaban#18 Lec # 1 Winter 2001 12-4-2001

    Hardware DescriptionHardware Description Har

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