presentation on generations of computer

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Computer project

Made byAvinash RanjanGeneration of ComputerComputer develops after the first electronic Computer ENIAC- [ Electronic Numerical Interigrater and Calculator ] are classified into five generation is baised on the Technology used in architectural development of computers. It also includes Computational Technic. Input and output devices and programming languages used.

2 First Generation: 1943-1956Worlds first electronic digital computer.Used to produce WWII ballistic firing tables for the U.S. Defense Department.Electronic Numerical Integratorand Calculator (ENIAC)

Features of First Generation ComputersFirst Generation Computer were too bulky in size and requiring large rooms for installation. In first Generation computer used thousands of Vacuum tubes that emitted large amount of heat and burnt out Frequently. Each Vacuum Tube Consumed about half watt of power.

1956 IBM 350 RAMACSecond generation [1959-64]Used transistors, developed by Bell Labs.Up to 32K of memory.Programming in computer languages, such as FORTRAN and COBOL.Features of Second Generation ComputersSecond Generation Computer were Smaller than First Generation Computers and required Smaller Space. They Consumed less Power and dissipated less heat then the First Generation Computers. The Area in Which the Second Generation Computers were located Still required to be Properly air Conditioned.They were more reliable and less Power to hardware failures then the first Generation Computers.

As Vacuum tubes used filaments, they had limited life Because a c0mputer used thousands of vacuum tubes. These Computers were prone to frequent hardware failures. Due to low mean time between failures , these Computers required Constant maintenance. Since first generation computers were difficult to program and use, they limited commercial use.

Third Generation: 1965-1971Used integrated circuits.Up to 3 million bytes of memory.Lower cost, smaller size, and increasing processor speed.

Features of Third Generation Computers

Third Generation Computer were more powerful than second generation computers. They were Capable of Performing about one million instructions per second.They were more reliable and less prone to hardware failures than second generation Computers requiring lower maintenance cost.They had faster and larger primary and secondary storage as compared to Second Generation Computer.

Time sharing Operating System allowed interactive usage and simultaneous use of these systems by multiple users.Standardization of high level Programming languages allowed programs written for one Computer to be easily ported to and executed on another Computer.Time Sharing Operating System also made online Systems feasible resulting in usage of these Systems for new on line applications.Minicomputers of third Generation made Computers affordable

10Personal computers or PCs.Usually cost about $2,000 or less.Process over 1 billion operations per second.Stand-alone or connected to other computers as a network system.Fourth Generation: 1972-NowMicrocomputers

TEA11Features of Fourth Generation Computers

PCs were smaller and Cheaper than mainframes or minicomputers of third Generation. They Consumed less Power than Third Generation Computers. They were More Reliable and less prone to hardware failures than Third Generation Computers requiring negligible maintenance Cost. They had Faster and larger primary and Secondary Storage as Compared to Third Generation Computer. They were General Purpose Machines.

Use of Standard High level Programming language allowed Programs written for one Computer to be easily ported to and executed on another Computer.Graphical User Interface (GUI) enabled new Users to Quickly learn how to Use Computers.PC based applications made PCs a Powerful tool for both Office and Home Usage.In addition to unbundled Software, these Systems also used add-on hardware feature that allowed users to invest only in the hardware Configuration and software of their need and value. PCs of fourth Generation made Computers affordable even by individuals for their personal use at home.

Fifth Generation [1990 to Present]The Development of Super Computers was the key motivation of 5th Generation Computer. Super Computer were develop with ULSI(Ultra Large Scale Integration). These are Knowledge Processing System. Concept Like Artificial Intelligence and Distributed Processing were incorporated .fifth Generation Desktop PCs and Workstations are several times more Powerful than PCs of fourth generation .Examples of fifth Generation computers are sun work stations, PARAM-10000 ,IBM notebooks etc.

Features of Fifth Generation Computers

Portable PCs (Called notebook Computers) are much Smaller and handy than PCs of fourth Generation allowing Users to Use Computing Facility even while travelling.fifth Generation Desktop PCs and Workstations are Several times more Powerful than PCs of Fourth Generation.They are more Reliable and less prone to hardware failures then 4th generation computers.

Fifth Generation Computer is more User Friendly interfaces with multimedia features make the systems easier to learn and use by anyone ,including Children. Newer and more powerful applications including multimedia features make the Systems more useful in every occupation. Explosion in the size of the Internet Coupled with Internet based tools and applications have made these systems influence the life of even Common People. These System also use the Concept of Unbundled software and add on hardware allowing the users to invest only in the hardware Configuration and Software of their need and Value.Evolution of Dr. Us Computer19902004FactorSpeed16 MHz2 GHz125xStorage20 MB120 GB6000xMemory1 MB1 GB MB1000xCost$2250$750.33xComputers Progress



(1968 vers.)Mits Altair

(1975)IBM PC


(1984)Pentium IV


Integrated Circuits2 Intel 8080 MicrochipIntel 8088

Microchip - 29,000 TransistorsMotorola 68000

Intel P-IV

Microchip - 7.5 million transistors

RAM Memory512 K265 Bytes256 KB256 MB

Speed1.3 MHz2 KHz4.77 MHz3200 MHz

= 3.2 GHz

Storage100 MB Hard Drive8 Floppy

DriveFloppy DriveFloppy DrivesHard Drive, Floppy, CD-Rom

SizeWhole RoomBriefcase

(no monitor)Briefcase + MonitorTwo shoeboxes (integrated monitor)Small Tower

Cost$1.6 million$750$1595~$4000$1000 - $2000