Computer Systems. COMPUTER GENERATIONS 1. VACUUM TUBES: 1946-1959.

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Slide 1Computer Systems Slide 2 COMPUTER GENERATIONS 1. VACUUM TUBES: 1946-1959 Slide 3 COMPUTER GENERATIONS 1. VACUUM TUBES: 1946-1959 2.TRANSISTORS: 1957-1963 Slide 4 COMPUTER GENERATIONS 1. VACUUM TUBES: 1946-1959 2. TRANSISTORS: 1957-1963 3.INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: 1964-1979 Slide 5 COMPUTER GENERATIONS 1. VACUUM TUBES: 1946-1959 2. TRANSISTORS: 1957-1963 3. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: 1964-1979 4.VERY LARGE-SCALE INTEGRATED (VLSI) CIRCUITS: 1980- PRESENT * Slide 6 SUPERCOMPUTER TERAFLOP: TRILLION CALCULATIONS/SECOND HIGHLY SOPHISTICATED HIGHLY SOPHISTICATED COMPLEX COMPUTATIONS COMPLEX COMPUTATIONS FASTEST CPUs FASTEST CPUs LARGE SIMULATIONS LARGE SIMULATIONS STATE-OF-THE-ART COMPONENTS STATE-OF-THE-ART COMPONENTS EXPENSIVE EXPENSIVE* Slide 7 MAINFRAME LARGEST ENTERPRISE COMPUTER LARGEST ENTERPRISE COMPUTER 5O MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM 5O MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM COMMERCIAL, SCIENTIFIC, MILITARY APPLICATIONS COMMERCIAL, SCIENTIFIC, MILITARY APPLICATIONS MASSIVE DATA MASSIVE DATA COMPLICATED COMPUTATIONS COMPLICATED COMPUTATIONS* MIPS: Millions of Instructions per second Slide 8 MINICOMPUTER MIDDLE-RANGE MIDDLE-RANGE 10 MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM 10 MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM UNIVERSITIES, FACTORIES, LABS UNIVERSITIES, FACTORIES, LABS USED AS FRONT-END PROCESSOR FOR MAINFRAME USED AS FRONT-END PROCESSOR FOR MAINFRAME* Slide 9 DESKTOP OR PORTABLE DESKTOP OR PORTABLE 64 KILOBYTES TO OVER 128 MEGABYTES RAM 64 KILOBYTES TO OVER 128 MEGABYTES RAM PERSONAL OR BUSINESS COMPUTERS PERSONAL OR BUSINESS COMPUTERS AFFORDABLE AFFORDABLE MANY AVAILABLE COMPONENTS MANY AVAILABLE COMPONENTS CAN BE NETWORKED CAN BE NETWORKED* MICROCOMPUTER Slide 10 LAPTOPS & SMALLER LAPTOP (OR NOTEBOOK): Briefcase type package, very portable, can be inexpensive, can connect to other computers or networks LAPTOP (OR NOTEBOOK): Briefcase type package, very portable, can be inexpensive, can connect to other computers or networks HAND-HELD (OR PALMTOP): Sub- miniature, wireless computer. Growing in sophistication and connectivity HAND-HELD (OR PALMTOP): Sub- miniature, wireless computer. Growing in sophistication and connectivity* Slide 11 BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS UNDERLYING STRUCTURE UNDERLYING STRUCTURE INPUT/OUTPUT INPUT/OUTPUT BITS & CODING SCHEMES BITS & CODING SCHEMES ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT* Slide 12 CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) RAM PRIMARY (MAIN) MEMORY CONTROL UNIT ARITHMETIC/LOGICUNIT ROM CLOCK Slide 13 BUSES CPU PRIMARYSTORAGE DATA BUS ADDRESS BUS CONTROL BUS INPUT DEVICES OUTPUT DEVICES SECONDARY STORAGE Slide 14 TYPES OF MEMORY RAM : Random Access Memory RAM : Random Access Memory Dynamic: Changes thru processing Static: Remains constant (power on) ROM : Read Only Memory (preprogrammed) ROM : Read Only Memory (preprogrammed) PROM: Program can be changed once EPROM: Erasable thru ultraviolet light EEPROM: Electrically erasable* Slide 15 INPUT/OUTPUT TERMINAL TERMINAL POINT-OF-SALES TERMINALS POINT-OF-SALES TERMINALS AUTOMATIC TELLER MACHINES AUTOMATIC TELLER MACHINES PUNCHED CARDS PUNCHED CARDS MAGNETIC INK CHARACTER RECOGNITION (MICR): Used by banks to process checks MAGNETIC INK CHARACTER RECOGNITION (MICR): Used by banks to process checks* Slide 16 INPUT/OUTPUT OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION: Scanned material translated into computer characters OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION: Scanned material translated into computer characters IMAGING: Forms, documents, photos digitized for computer use IMAGING: Forms, documents, photos digitized for computer use BAR CODE LABEL: Product label information read into computer. Can be used to track inventory BAR CODE LABEL: Product label information read into computer. Can be used to track inventory* Slide 17 INPUT/OUTPUT COMPUTER OUTPUT MICROFILM (COM): Computer rapidly generates microfilm documents for archive copies in small space COMPUTER OUTPUT MICROFILM (COM): Computer rapidly generates microfilm documents for archive copies in small space VOICE RESPONSE UNITS: Computer recognizes, generates verbal messages VOICE RESPONSE UNITS: Computer recognizes, generates verbal messages MULTIMEDIA: Combines text, graphics, sound still images, animations, video MULTIMEDIA: Combines text, graphics, sound still images, animations, video* Slide 18 BIT: Binary Digit. On/Off, 0/1, Magnetic/Not BIT: Binary Digit. On/Off, 0/1, Magnetic/Not BYTE: Group of bits for one character BYTE: Group of bits for one character EBCDIC- Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (8 bits per byte) ASCII- American Standard Code for Information Exchange (7 or 8 bits per byte) PARITY BIT: extra bit added to each byte to help detect errors PARITY BIT: extra bit added to each byte to help detect errors* HOW CHARACTERS ARE STORED IN COMPUTER MEMORY Slide 19 EXAMPLES OF BYTES C: 1100 0011 0 100 0011 1 C: 1100 0011 0 100 0011 1 A: 1100 0001 1 100 0001 0 A: 1100 0001 1 100 0001 0 T: 1110 0011 1 101 0100 1 T: 1110 0011 1 101 0100 1 Note how sum for each byte is an EVEN number Note how sum for each byte is an EVEN number* EBCDIC ASCII EBCDIC ASCII (assume even-parity system) (assume even-parity system) Slide 20 ALU & CONTROL UNIT ARITHMETIC- LOGIC UNIT: CPU component performs logic and arithmetic operations ARITHMETIC- LOGIC UNIT: CPU component performs logic and arithmetic operations CONTROL UNIT: CPU component controls, coordinates other parts of computer system CONTROL UNIT: CPU component controls, coordinates other parts of computer system* Slide 21 COMPUTER FILES RECORD: Data about a transaction arranged in a set of FIELDS, each holding a datum RECORD: Data about a transaction arranged in a set of FIELDS, each holding a datum FILE: A group of similar records, such as accounts receivable or payroll FILE: A group of similar records, such as accounts receivable or payroll DATABASE: The files of an organization, an electronic library DATABASE: The files of an organization, an electronic library* Slide 22 COMPUTER FILES SEQUENTIAL ACCESS: A sequence of files arranged in order, say alphabetically. Usually stored on magnetic tape or cartridge SEQUENTIAL ACCESS: A sequence of files arranged in order, say alphabetically. Usually stored on magnetic tape or cartridge DIRECT ACCESS: Records stored on a DIRECT ACCESS STORAGE DEVICE (DASD). Can move directly to any record DIRECT ACCESS: Records stored on a DIRECT ACCESS STORAGE DEVICE (DASD). Can move directly to any record* Slide 23 DIRECT ACCESS STORAGE DEVICE HARD DISK: Steel platter array for large computer systems HARD DISK: Steel platter array for large computer systems RAID: Redundant array of Inexpensive Disks RAID: Redundant array of Inexpensive Disks FLOPPY DISK: Removable disk for PC FLOPPY DISK: Removable disk for PC* Slide 24 DISK PACK STORAGE LARGE SYSTEMS LARGE SYSTEMS RELIABLE STORAGE RELIABLE STORAGE LARGE AMOUNTS OF DATA LARGE AMOUNTS OF DATA QUICK ACCESS & RETRIEVABLE QUICK ACCESS & RETRIEVABLE TYPICAL: 11 2-SIDED DISKS TYPICAL: 11 2-SIDED DISKS CYLINDER: SAME TRACK ALL SURFACES CYLINDER: SAME TRACK ALL SURFACES CYLINDER 10: TRACK 10 (TOP AND BOTTOM OF EACH DISK) DISK 1 DISK 2 DISK 3 DISK 4 DISK 5 READ/WRITEHEADS Slide 25 THE STORED PROGRAM CONCEPT COMPUTER IS A BINARY SYSTEM COMPUTER IS A BINARY SYSTEM PROGRAM: A set of instructions telling the computer what to do PROGRAM: A set of instructions telling the computer what to do INSTRUCTION: Individual step or operation in a program INSTRUCTION: Individual step or operation in a program MACHINE LANGUAGE: Translated instruction understood by particular model of computer MACHINE LANGUAGE: Translated instruction understood by particular model of computer* Slide 26 CONTROLLER LINK FOR INPUT/OUTPUT OR FILE DEVICES: To CPU and memory of large computer systems LINK FOR INPUT/OUTPUT OR FILE DEVICES: To CPU and memory of large computer systems HIGHLY SPECIALIZED PROCESSOR: Manages the operation of attached devices to free the CPU from these tasks HIGHLY SPECIALIZED PROCESSOR: Manages the operation of attached devices to free the CPU from these tasks* Slide 27 DATA CHANNEL SPECIALIZED INPUT/OUTPUT PROCESSOR (A COMPUTER): Takes over function of device communication from the CPU SPECIALIZED INPUT/OUTPUT PROCESSOR (A COMPUTER): Takes over function of device communication from the CPU CORRECTS FOR SPEED MISMATCH BETWEEN SLOW PERIPHERAL DEVICES AND VERY FAST CPU CORRECTS FOR SPEED MISMATCH BETWEEN SLOW PERIPHERAL DEVICES AND VERY FAST CPU* Slide 28 SYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSOR PROCESSORS (CPUs) ARE IDENTICAL, WITH EACH PROCESSOR OPERATING INDEPENDENTLY OF THE OTHERS PROCESSORS (CPUs) ARE IDENTICAL, WITH EACH PROCESSOR OPERATING INDEPENDENTLY OF THE OTHERS USED IN MOST MAINFRAMES AND SOME MIDRANGE MACHINES USED IN MOST MAINFRAMES AND SOME MIDRANGE MACHINES* Slide 29 PARALLEL PROCESSOR (PP) MULTIPLE CPUs INSTALLED AS PART OF A SINGLE COMPUTER SYSTEM: Gives separate piece of program to each of the processors so that work on the program can proceed in parallel on the separate pieces MULTIPLE CPUs INSTALLED AS PART OF A SINGLE COMPUTER SYSTEM: Gives separate piece of program to each of the processors so that work on the program can proceed in parallel on the separate pieces* Slide 30 MASSIVELY PARALLEL PROCESSOR (MPP) PARALLEL PROCESSING COMPUTER WITH MANY PARALLEL PROCESSORS: PARALLEL PROCESSING COMPUTER WITH MANY PARALLEL PROCESSORS: 32 OR MORE: Different CPUs capable of performing different instructions at the same time 32 OR MORE: Different CPUs capable of performing different instructions at the same time 1000 OR MORE: CPUs must all carry out the same instruction at the same time 1000 OR MORE: CPUs must all carry out the same instruction at the same time Slide 31 Computer Software Slide 32 THE STORED PROGRAM CONCEPT COMPUTER IS A BINARY SYSTEM COMPUTER IS A BINARY SYSTEM PROGRAM: A set of instructions telling the computer what to do PROGRAM: A set of instructions telling the computer what to do INSTRUCTION: Individual step or operation in a program INSTRUCTION: Individual step or operation in a program MACHINE LANGUAGE: Translated instruction understood by particular model of computer MACHINE LANGUAGE: Translated instruction understood by particular model of computer* Slide 33 EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SOFTWARE FIRST GENERATION: Machine language - binary language designed for particular computer FIRST GENERATION: Machine language - binary language designed for particular computer SECOND GENERATION: Assembly language - substituted mnemonic operation codes and addresses, translated to machine language by assembler SECOND GENERATION: Assembly language - substituted mnemonic operation codes and addresses, translated to machine language by assembler* Slide 34 THIRD GENERATION: Procedural language - FORTRAN, COBOL, C - translated to machine language by compiler or interpreter. Example: COBOL THIRD GENERATION: Procedural language - FORTRAN, COBOL, C - translated to machine language by compiler or interpreter. Example: COBOL FOURTH GENERATION: Nonprocedural language. Tell what to do, not how to do it, order not important. Translate to machine language by compiler or interpreter. Example: FOCUS FOURTH GENERATION: Nonprocedural language. Tell what to do, not how to do it, order not important. Translate to machine language by compiler or interpreter. Example: FOCUS* EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SOFTWARE Slide 35 KEY TYPES OF SOFTWARE APPLICATION SOFTWARE: Programs written to accomplish particular tasks for computer users APPLICATION SOFTWARE: Programs written to accomplish particular tasks for computer users SUPPORT SOFTWARE: Programs that support application software in producing needed output. Does not directly produce output needed by users SUPPORT SOFTWARE: Programs that support application software in producing needed output. Does not directly produce output needed by users* Slide 36 APPLICATION SOFTWARE WORD PROCESSING WORD PROCESSING SPREADSHEETS SPREADSHEETS DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PRESENTATION GRAPHICS PRESENTATION GRAPHICS* Slide 37 APPLICATION SOFTWARE WORLD WIDE WEB BROWSERS WORLD WIDE WEB BROWSERS ELECTRONIC MAIL, GROUPWARE ELECTRONIC MAIL, GROUPWARE DESKTOP PUBLISHING DESKTOP PUBLISHING APPLICATION SUITES APPLICATION SUITES* Slide 38 SUPPORT SOFTWARE OPERATING SYSTEMS: Helps maximize work done, eases workload of users OPERATING SYSTEMS: Helps maximize work done, eases workload of users JOB CONTROL LANGUAGE: Allows users to communicate with operating systems JOB CONTROL LANGUAGE: Allows users to communicate with operating systems MULTIPROGRAMMING: Large computers can run multiple programs simultaneously. Time-driven approach is time-sharing MULTIPROGRAMMING: Large computers can run multiple programs simultaneously. Time-driven approach is time-sharing* Slide 39 SUPPORT SOFTWARE MULTITASKING: Allows small computers to work on several programs interactively MULTITASKING: Allows small computers to work on several programs interactively VIRTUAL MEMORY: Allows computer to run portions of a large program as required, saving use of main memory VIRTUAL MEMORY: Allows computer to run portions of a large program as required, saving use of main memory MULTIPROCESSING: Multiple CPUs divide workload, increases efficiency MULTIPROCESSING: Multiple CPUs divide workload, increases efficiency* Slide 40 SOURCES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS PROPRIETARY: Written for particular computer class or system. Examples: Windows 98, Windows 2000 PROPRIETARY: Written for particular computer class or system. Examples: Windows 98, Windows 2000 OPEN SYSTEM: Not tied to specific platform. Examples: UNIX, Linux OPEN SYSTEM: Not tied to specific platform. Examples: UNIX, Linux NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS): Manages network resources, local area networks NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS): Manages network resources, local area networks* Slide 41 GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI) MOUSE: A standard pointing device MOUSE: A standard pointing device ICON: Graphic or label on screen associated with task or operation ICON: Graphic or label on screen associated with task or operation 32-BIT OPERATING SYSTEM: Operating system handles 32 bits at a time 32-BIT OPERATING SYSTEM: Operating system handles 32 bits at a time CLICKING MOUSE ON ICON INITIATES TASK CLICKING MOUSE ON ICON INITIATES TASK* Slide 42 OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING (OOP) COMPUTER PROGRAMMING BASED ON CREATING, USING SET OF OBJECTS: Object combines data and methods (or chunks of programs) COMPUTER PROGRAMMING BASED ON CREATING, USING SET OF OBJECTS: Object combines data and methods (or chunks of programs) EXAMPLES: C++, Smalltalk, Java EXAMPLES: C++, Smalltalk, Java* Slide 43 OTHER LANGUAGES NATURAL LANGUAGES: User types in or speaks English, computer evolves program NATURAL LANGUAGES: User types in or speaks English, computer evolves program HYPERTEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE (HTML): Code used to develop World Wide Web (WWW) pages and sites HYPERTEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE (HTML): Code used to develop World Wide Web (WWW) pages and sites eXtensible Markup Language (XML): Used for data exchange on WWW eXtensible Markup Language (XML): Used for data exchange on WWW* Slide 44 DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS) SUPPORT SOFTWARE USED TO CREATE, MANAGE, AND PROTECT ORGANIZATIONAL DATA SUPPORT SOFTWARE USED TO CREATE, MANAGE, AND PROTECT ORGANIZATIONAL DATA DBMS: Software that manages a database, works with operating system to store and modify data and to make data accessible in authorized ways DBMS: Software that manages a database, works with operating system to store and modify data and to make data accessible in authorized ways* Slide 45 TYPES OF DBMSs HIERARCHICAL: Data arranged in a top- down, organization chart fashion HIERARCHICAL: Data arranged in a top- down, organization chart fashion NETWORK: Data arranged like cities on a highway systems, often with multiple paths between pieces of data NETWORK: Data arranged like cities on a highway systems, often with multiple paths between pieces of data RELATIONAL: Data arranged into simple tables, and records are related by storing common data in each of the associated tables RELATIONAL: Data arranged into simple tables, and records are related by storing common data in each of the associated tables* Slide 46 FILING METHODS INDEXED SEQUENTIAL ACCESS METHOD (ISAM) : INDEXED SEQUENTIAL ACCESS METHOD (ISAM) : EACH RECORD IDENTIFIED BY KEY GROUPED IN BLOCKS AND CYLINDERS KEYS IN INDEX VIRTUAL STORAGE ACCESS METHOD (VSAM) : VIRTUAL STORAGE ACCESS METHOD (VSAM) : MEMORY DIVIDED INTO AREAS & INTERVALS DYNAMIC FILE SPACE VSAM WIDELY USED FOR RELATIONAL DATABASES VSAM WIDELY USED FOR RELATIONAL DATABASES DIRECT FILE ACCESS METHOD DIRECT FILE ACCESS METHOD* Slide 47 COMPONENTS OF DBMS: DATA DEFINITION LANGUAGE: Defines data elements in database DATA DEFINITION LANGUAGE: Defines data elements in database DATA MANIPULATION LANGUAGE: Manipulates data for applications DATA MANIPULATION LANGUAGE: Manipulates data for applications DATA DICTIONARY/DIRECTORY: Formal definitions of all variables in database, controls variety of database contents DATA DICTIONARY/DIRECTORY: Formal definitions of all variables in database, controls variety of database contents* Slide 48 STRUCTURED QUERY LANGUAGE (SQL) EMERGING STANDARD DATA MANIPULATION LANGUAGE FOR RELATIONAL DATABASES * Slide 49 ADVANTAGES OF RELATIONAL DBMS NEW DATA ELEMENTS CAN EASILY BE ADDED AS NEW NEEDS ARISE NEW DATA ELEMENTS CAN EASILY BE ADDED AS NEW NEEDS ARISE NEW RELATIONSHIPS CAN BE CREATED AS NEW QUERY/REPORTING NEEDS CHANGE NEW RELATIONSHIPS CAN BE CREATED AS NEW QUERY/REPORTING NEEDS CHANGE FEWER DATA CONSISTENCY PROBLEMS DUE TO LESS REDUNDANT DATA STORAGE FEWER DATA CONSISTENCY PROBLEMS DUE TO LESS REDUNDANT DATA STORAGE MORE USER FRIENDLY TOOLS MORE USER FRIENDLY TOOLS* Slide 50 COMPUTER-AIDED SOFTWARE ENGINEERING (CASE) HELPS AUTOMATE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT: Used by computer professionals to help automate software development HELPS AUTOMATE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT: Used by computer professionals to help automate software development MAY INCLUDE: MAY INCLUDE: upper-CASE (requirements definition and design) lower-CASE (code generation) I-CASE or integrated-CASE* Slide 51 CHANGING NATURE OF SOFTWARE MORE HARDWIRING OF SOFTWARE AND MORE MICROCODE MORE HARDWIRING OF SOFTWARE AND MORE MICROCODE MORE COMPLEXITY OF HARDWARE/SOFTWARE ARRANGEMENTS MORE COMPLEXITY OF HARDWARE/SOFTWARE ARRANGEMENTS LESS CONCERN WITH MACHINE EFFICIENCY LESS CONCERN WITH MACHINE EFFICIENCY* Slide 52 MORE PURCHASED APPLICATIONS AND MORE PORTABILITY OF THESE APPLICATIONS FROM ONE COMPUTER PLATFORM TO ANOTHER MORE PURCHASED APPLICATIONS AND MORE PORTABILITY OF THESE APPLICATIONS FROM ONE COMPUTER PLATFORM TO ANOTHER MORE PROGRAMMING USING OBJECT- ORIENTED AND VISUAL LANGUAGES, IN LARGE PART BECAUSE OF EMPHASIS ON GUIs MORE PROGRAMMING USING OBJECT- ORIENTED AND VISUAL LANGUAGES, IN LARGE PART BECAUSE OF EMPHASIS ON GUIs* CHANGING NATURE OF SOFTWARE Slide 53 MORE EMPHASIS ON APPLICATIONS THAT RUN ON INTRANETS AND THE INTERNET MORE EMPHASIS ON APPLICATIONS THAT RUN ON INTRANETS AND THE INTERNET MORE USER DEVELOPMENT MORE USER DEVELOPMENT MORE USE OF PERSONAL PRODUCTIVITY SOFTWARE ON MICROCOMPUTERS, ESPECIALLY PACKAGES WITH A GUI MORE USE OF PERSONAL PRODUCTIVITY SOFTWARE ON MICROCOMPUTERS, ESPECIALLY PACKAGES WITH A GUI* CHANGING NATURE OF SOFTWARE

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