computer systems. computer generations 1. vacuum tubes: 1946-1959

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Computer Systems Slide 2 COMPUTER GENERATIONS 1. VACUUM TUBES: 1946-1959 Slide 3 COMPUTER GENERATIONS 1. VACUUM TUBES: 1946-1959 2.TRANSISTORS: 1957-1963 Slide 4 COMPUTER GENERATIONS 1. VACUUM TUBES: 1946-1959 2. TRANSISTORS: 1957-1963 3.INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: 1964-1979 Slide 5 COMPUTER GENERATIONS 1. VACUUM TUBES: 1946-1959 2. TRANSISTORS: 1957-1963 3. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: 1964-1979 4.VERY LARGE-SCALE INTEGRATED (VLSI) CIRCUITS: 1980- PRESENT * Slide 6 SUPERCOMPUTER TERAFLOP: TRILLION CALCULATIONS/SECOND HIGHLY SOPHISTICATED HIGHLY SOPHISTICATED COMPLEX COMPUTATIONS COMPLEX COMPUTATIONS FASTEST CPUs FASTEST CPUs LARGE SIMULATIONS LARGE SIMULATIONS STATE-OF-THE-ART COMPONENTS STATE-OF-THE-ART COMPONENTS EXPENSIVE EXPENSIVE* Slide 7 MAINFRAME LARGEST ENTERPRISE COMPUTER LARGEST ENTERPRISE COMPUTER 5O MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM 5O MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM COMMERCIAL, SCIENTIFIC, MILITARY APPLICATIONS COMMERCIAL, SCIENTIFIC, MILITARY APPLICATIONS MASSIVE DATA MASSIVE DATA COMPLICATED COMPUTATIONS COMPLICATED COMPUTATIONS* MIPS: Millions of Instructions per second Slide 8 MINICOMPUTER MIDDLE-RANGE MIDDLE-RANGE 10 MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM 10 MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM UNIVERSITIES, FACTORIES, LABS UNIVERSITIES, FACTORIES, LABS USED AS FRONT-END PROCESSOR FOR MAINFRAME USED AS FRONT-END PROCESSOR FOR MAINFRAME* Slide 9 DESKTOP OR PORTABLE DESKTOP OR PORTABLE 64 KILOBYTES TO OVER 128 MEGABYTES RAM 64 KILOBYTES TO OVER 128 MEGABYTES RAM PERSONAL OR BUSINESS COMPUTERS PERSONAL OR BUSINESS COMPUTERS AFFORDABLE AFFORDABLE MANY AVAILABLE COMPONENTS MANY AVAILABLE COMPONENTS CAN BE NETWORKED CAN BE NETWORKED* MICROCOMPUTER Slide 10 LAPTOPS & SMALLER LAPTOP (OR NOTEBOOK): Briefcase type package, very portable, can be inexpensive, can connect to other computers or networks LAPTOP (OR NOTEBOOK): Briefcase type package, very portable, can be inexpensive, can connect to other computers or networks HAND-HELD (OR PALMTOP): Sub- miniature, wireless computer. Growing in sophistication and connectivity HAND-HELD (OR PALMTOP): Sub- miniature, wireless computer. Growing in sophistication and connectivity* Slide 11 BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS UNDERLYING STRUCTURE UNDERLYING STRUCTURE INPUT/OUTPUT INPUT/OUTPUT BITS & CODING SCHEMES BITS & CODING SCHEMES ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT* Slide 12 CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) RAM PRIMARY (MAIN) MEMORY CONTROL UNIT ARITHMETIC/LOGICUNIT ROM CLOCK Slide 13 BUSES CPU PRIMARYSTORAGE DATA BUS ADDRESS BUS CONTROL BUS INPUT DEVICES OUTPUT DEVICES SECONDARY STORAGE Slide 14 TYPES OF MEMORY RAM : Random Access Memory RAM : Random Access Memory Dynamic: Changes thru processing Static: Remains constant (power on) ROM : Read Only Memory (preprogrammed) ROM : Read Only Memory (preprogrammed) PROM: Program can be changed once EPROM: Erasable thru ultraviolet light EEPROM: Electrically erasable* Slide 15 INPUT/OUTPUT TERMINAL TERMINAL POINT-OF-SALES TERMINALS POINT-OF-SALES TERMINALS AUTOMATIC TELLER MACHINES AUTOMATIC TELLER MACHINES PUNCHED CARDS PUNCHED CARDS MAGNETIC INK CHARACTER RECOGNITION (MICR): Used by banks to process checks MAGNETIC INK CHARACTER RECOGNITION (MICR): Used by banks to process checks* Slide 16 INPUT/OUTPUT OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION: Scanned material translated into computer characters OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION: Scanned material translated into computer characters IMAGING: Forms, documents, photos digitized for computer use IMAGING: Forms, documents, photos digitized for computer use BAR CODE LABEL: Product label information read into computer. Can be used to track inventory BAR CODE LABEL: Product label information read into computer. Can be used to track inventory* Slide 17 INPUT/OUTPUT COMPUTER OUTPUT MICROFILM (COM): Computer rapidly generates microfilm documents for archive copies in small space COMPUTER OUTPUT MICROFILM (COM): Computer rapidly generates microfilm documents for archive copies in small space VOICE RESPONSE UNITS: Computer recognizes, generates verbal messages VOICE RESPONSE UNITS: Computer recognizes, generates verbal messages MULTIMEDIA: Combines text, graphics, sound still images, animations, video MULTIMEDIA: Combines text, graphics, sound still images, animations, video* Slide 18 BIT: Binary Digit. On/Off, 0/1, Magnetic/Not BIT: Binary Digit. On/Off, 0/1, Magnetic/Not BYTE: Group of bits for one character BYTE: Group of bits for one character EBCDIC- Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (8 bits per byte) ASCII- American Standard Code for Information Exchange (7 or 8 bits per byte) PARITY BIT: extra bit added to each byte to help detect errors PARITY BIT: extra bit added to each byte to help detect errors* HOW CHARACTERS ARE STORED IN COMPUTER MEMORY Slide 19 EXAMPLES OF BYTES C: 1100 0011 0 100 0011 1 C: 1100 0011 0 100 0011 1 A: 1100 0001 1 100 0001 0 A: 1100 0001 1 100 0001 0 T: 1110 0011 1 101 0100 1 T: 1110 0011 1 101 0100 1 Note how sum for each byte is an EVEN number Note how sum for each byte is an EVEN number* EBCDIC ASCII EBCDIC ASCII (assume even-parity system) (assume even-parity system) Slide 20 ALU & CONTROL UNIT ARITHMETIC- LOGIC UNIT: CPU component performs logic and arithmetic operations ARITHMETIC- LOGIC UNIT: CPU component performs logic and arithmetic operations CONTROL UNIT: CPU component controls, coordinates other parts of computer system CONTROL UNIT: CPU component controls, coordinates other parts of computer system* Slide 21 COMPUTER FILES RECORD: Data about a transaction arranged in a set of FIELDS, each holding a datum RECORD: Data about a transaction arranged in a set of FIELDS, each holding a datum FILE: A group of similar records, such as accounts receivable or payroll FILE: A group of similar records, such as accounts receivable or payroll DATABASE: The files of an organization, an electronic library DATABASE: The files of an organization, an electronic library* Slide 22 COMPUTER FILES SEQUENTIAL ACCESS: A sequence of files arranged in order, say alphabetically. Usually stored on magnetic tape or cartridge SEQUENTIAL ACCESS: A sequence of files arranged in order, say alphabetically. Usually stored on magnetic tape or cartridge DIRECT ACCESS: Records stored on a DIRECT ACCESS STORAGE DEVICE (DASD). Can move directly to any record DIRECT ACCESS: Records stored on a DIRECT ACCESS STORAGE DEVICE (DASD). Can move directly to any record* Slide 23 DIRECT ACCESS STORAGE DEVICE HARD DISK: Steel platter array for large computer systems HARD DISK: Steel platter array for large computer systems RAID: Redundant array of Inexpensive Disks RAID: Redundant array of Inexpensive Disks FLOPPY DISK: Removable disk for PC FLOPPY DISK: Removable disk for PC* Slide 24 DISK PACK STORAGE LARGE SYSTEMS LARGE SYSTEMS RELIABLE STORAGE RELIABLE STORAGE LARGE AMOUNTS OF DATA LARGE AMOUNTS OF DATA QUICK ACCESS & RETRIEVABLE QUICK ACCESS & RETRIEVABLE TYPICAL: 11 2-SIDED DISKS TYPICAL: 11 2-SIDED DISKS CYLINDER: SAME TRACK ALL SURFACES CYLINDER: SAME TRACK ALL SURFACES CYLINDER 10: TRACK 10 (TOP AND BOTTOM OF EACH DISK) DISK 1 DISK 2 DISK 3 DISK 4 DISK 5 READ/WRITEHEADS Slide 25 THE STORED PROGRAM CONCEPT COMPUTER IS A BINARY SYSTEM COMPUTER IS A BINARY SYSTEM PROGRAM: A set of instructions telling the computer what to do PROGRAM: A set of instructions telling the computer what to do INSTRUCTION: Individual step or operation in a program INSTRUCTION: Individual step or operation in a program MACHINE LANGUAGE: Translated instruction understood by particular model of computer MACHINE LANGUAGE: Translated instruction understood by particular model of computer* Slide 26 CONTROLLER LINK FOR INPUT/OUTPUT OR FILE DEVICES: To CPU and memory of large computer systems LINK FOR INPUT/OUTPUT OR FILE DEVICES: To CPU and memory of large computer systems HIGHLY SPECIALIZED PROCESSOR: Manages the operation of attached devices to free the CPU from these tasks HIGHLY SPECIALIZED PROCESSOR: Manages the operation of attached devices to free the CPU from these tasks* Slide 27 DATA CHANNEL SPECIALIZED INPUT/OUTPUT PROCESSOR (A COMPUTER): Takes over function of device communication from the CPU SPECIALIZED INPUT/OUTPUT PROCESSOR (A COMPUTER): Takes over function of device communication from the CPU CORRECTS FOR SPEED MISMATCH BETWEEN SLOW PERIPHERAL DEVICES AND VERY FAST CPU CORRECTS FOR SPEED MISMATCH BETWEEN SLOW PERIPHERAL DEVICES AND VERY FAST CPU* Slide 28 SYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSOR PROCESSORS (CPUs) ARE IDENTICAL, WITH EACH PROCESSOR OPERATING INDEPENDENTLY OF THE OTHERS PROCESSORS (CPUs) ARE IDENTICAL, WITH EACH PROCESSOR OPERATING INDEPENDENTLY OF THE OTHERS USED IN MOST MAINFRAMES AND SOME MIDRANGE MACHINES USED IN MOST MAINFRAMES AND SOME MIDRANGE MACHINES* Slide 29 PARALLEL PROCESSOR (PP) MULTIPLE CPUs INSTALLED AS PART OF A SINGLE COMPUTER SYSTEM: Gives separate piece of program to each of the processors so that work on the program can proceed in parallel on the separate pieces MULTIPLE CPUs INSTALLED AS PART OF A SINGLE COMPUTER SYSTEM: Gives separate piece of program to each of the processors so that work on the program can proceed in parallel on the separate pieces* Slide 30 MASSIVELY PARALLEL PROCESSOR (MPP) PARALLEL PROCESSING COMPUTER WITH MANY PARALLEL PROCESSORS: PARALLEL PROCESSING COMPUTER WITH MANY PARALLEL PROCESSORS: 32 OR MORE: Different CPUs capable of performing different instructions at the same time 32 OR MORE: Different CPUs capable of performing different instructions at the same time 1000 OR MORE: CPUs must all carry out the same instruction at the same time 1000 OR MORE: CPUs must all carry out the same instruction at the same time Slide 31 Computer Software Slide 32 THE STORED PROGRAM CONCEPT COMPUTER IS A BINARY SYSTEM COMPUTER IS A BINARY SYSTEM PROGRAM: A set of instructions telling the computer what to do PROGRAM: A set of instructions telling the computer what to do INSTRUCTION: Indivi

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