ครั้งที่ 10

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Methedology Methedology so|c v.+.. . .... ......... v.+.. |....... o... |.. o..... r o..... u. c.. o..... . c.. o..... . s....... o.....3 ... ...+....... ........ s........+ ........ s........ |........ s....... : o...... 4 2 |... ......... Top-Down Programming v.+.... |........Control ModuleStartCall module 1Call module 2Call module 3stopModule 1BeginDo 1Do 2Do 3returnModule 3BeginIf x the yElse qDo abcreturnModule 2BeginDo xDo yDo zreturn5 (Entity-Relationship Diagram : ERD) Course_no*Namecreditstd_no*Course_nogradestd_no*nameFaculty_codeMajor_code (ER-Diagram)6. r .+ ..-..-. . . ---. \ .. .+ +. . .. + -| yFlow Chart70Mk resterauntsystemCustomerServerCashierManagerorder customer datalist order datalist order summary datacheck bill datacheck dataContext Diagram (DFD Level0) Mk resteraunt systemCreate by : IT Student Ubon University 02/12/20068 o... ..+ |.... (Data Flow Diagram : DFD)CustomerServerCashierManagerupdateordercustomer1order customerorder customer dataA12ChangebillBill datacheck bill datacheck bill dataB1order customer datalist order datalist order summary data3CreateReportcheck dataDFD Level 1 restaurant system9ud Use Case ModelSol i tare Game System UserSystem ComputerSelect Start New GameSelect Option Select DeckPlay GameEnd GameExit GameRandom Solitareextendextendextendi ncl udeUse Case Diagram10

c.sr .oo|si........+ o... r........ ior 11CASE ToolCASE Tool 2 1. (Upper CASE Tools) v..-.. ....,..|... o...... 2.(Lower CASE Tools) (Implementation) o....... ....... ..12

(Techniques) u.. i...... .........13 c........+.+ s...... r..........c.sr .... o..... .... 14CENTRAL REPOSITORYLocal Repository (on a LAN Server)Security and Version Control ToolsInquiry and Reporting ToolsData Sharing ToolsHouse- keeping ToolsGraphics ToolsDecision Support ToolsQuality Management ToolsDesign GeneratorsCode GeneratorsDocument ToolsINPUTS: models, descriptions and prototypesOUTPUTS: reports, problems, and analysesimported and exported knowledgecheck-out/ check in knowledgeRepository ServerCASE Tool Facilities (on a workstation)Description ToolsPrototyping Toolslinks links15 s,.. v.+.. s,.. o........ v....+...... uv| o...... o... |.. o..... r o..... 16 17 18 19 20 o....... r 212223 - INPUTPROCESSOUTPUT (Algorithm) (FLOW CHART) (PSEUDOCODE) (Syntax) SOURCE PROGRAM (COMPILE) OBJECT PROGRAM (SYNTAX ERROR) (TEST DATA) (EXECUTE) RUN (LOGICAL ERROR) SOURCE PROGRAM COMPILE OBJECT PROGRAMSYNTAX ERROR

OBJECT PROGRAMEXECUTE RUN TEST1.+ 2.

FLOWCHART SPEUDOCODESTARTREAD XEND OF DATATOTAL= TOTAL + XWRITE XREAD XTOTAL= 0COUNT=0MEAN = TOTAL/COUNT COUNT =COUNT=1WRITE MEANSTOPNOYESSTART / STOP DOCUMENTINPUT / OUTPUTCONNECTION

PROCESS HARDDISK DECISIONTAPE

DIRECTIONSFIND AVERAGE OF XInitial :TOTAL = 0, COUNT = 0READ XWHILE NOT END OF DATA DO ADD X TO TOTAL ADD 1 TO COUNT WRITE X READ XMEAN = TOTAL / COUNTWRITE MEANEND.PSEUDOCODE/ READ/WRITE / var =expression IF ..THEN ELSE WHILE DO REPEAT UNTIL PROGRAMAVERAGE;VARCOUNT :INTEGER; X, TOTAL, MEAN:REAL;BEGIN TOTAL := 0 ; COUNT :=0; READLN(X); WHILE X 9999DO BEGINTOTAL := TOTAL+X;COUNT := COUNT +1;WRITELN(X);READLN(X)END; MEAN := TATAL / COUNT;WRITELN(MEAN)END.= > < < > IFSCORE> 50 THEN ELSE IF (GRADE= A )THEN WHILE(X > = 0) DO ..IFX < > YTHEN ELSE IF (A> B) AND (A >B ) THEN IF(X < 0)OR(X > 25) THEN. == VAR COUNT:INTEGER; TOTAL : REAL;OK : CHAR; NAME:STRING[20]; = Y =A + B - C * D / E 1) * / 2) + - 1.2. 3.condS2 S1condLoop bodyExit loopTRUEFALSETRUEFALSE49Computer Programs & Programming LanguagesLow-level LanguagesProcedural LanguagesObject-oriented Programming LanguagesOther Programming LanguagesWeb Page Development50The Program Development CycleStep 1 Analyze RequirementsStep 2 Design SolutionStep 3 Validate DesignStep 4 ImplementStep 5 Test SolutionStep 6 Document Solution 51Computer Program Programmer Developer computer programProgramming Languages (word), (symbol) code Low-level Language (machine-dependent language)High-level Language machine (machine-independent language)521. Machine Language binary digit (0,1) ( + ) binary digit 531. Assembly Language 2(Symbolic Instruction Code) A Addition ()M Multiply () (Symbolic Address) RATE source program Assembler machine language54 3GL (third-generation language) ADD AdditionPRINT 1 3GL machine language 55Compiler 3GL machine language (.exe)56Interpreter 57COBOL (Common Business-oriented Language) Grace Hopper pay roll, billingC Dennis Ritchie (Bell Lab) system software professional 5859 Event-Driven Programming click mouse, 60Java Sun Microsystems J2EE (Java 2 Platform Enterprise Edition) Web services object Java Applet java web browser java applet: , (animation), games, shopping cart 61C++ Bjarne Sroustrup (Bell Lab) C OO-ProgrammingC# Anders Hejlsberg (Microsoft) C++ Web Application XML-based Web services62Fifth-generation language (5GL) graphic user interface visual programming environment (VPE) drag and drop RAD (Rapid Application Development) button, textbox63.NET Visual Basic 2005, Visual C++ 2005, Visual C# 2005, and Visual J# 2005Step 1. User InterfaceStep 2. object Step 4. Step 3. 64DelphiPowerful visual programming toolIdeal for large-scale enterprise and Web applications65PowerBuilderAnother powerful visual programming toolBest suited for Web-based and large-scale object-oriented applications66RPG (Report Program Generator) IBM midrange computers AS/4004GLs (Forth-generation language) nonprocedural language SQL (Query Language)67HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) Programming Language 68Scripts, Applets, Servlets, & ActiveX Controls web browser clientweb server CGI (Common Gateway Interface) CGI CGI Script69CGI ScriptScripting LanguagesJavaScript dynamic content mouse message box Perl (Practical Extraction & Report Language)Rexx (REstructured eXtended eXecutor)Tcl (Tool Command Language)VBScript (Visual Basic Script)70Dynamic HTML (DHTML) HTML web server Document Object Model (DOM) , Style Sheet Scripting Language71XHTML, XML, & WMLXHTMLXHTML (Extensible HTML) (Extensible HTML)enables Web sites to be displayed more easily on microbrowsersXMLXML (Extensible Markup Language) (Extensible Markup Language)allows developers to create customized tagsWML WML (Wireless Markup Language) (Wireless Markup Language)allows developers to design pages specifically for microbrowsersIncludes features of HTML and XMLMany PDAs and smart phones use WML as their markup languageServer sends entire record to client, enabling client to do much of processing without going back to server72Web Page Authoring Software HTML generate HTML FrontPa FrontPage ge2003 2003Flash FlashMX MXDreamweave Dreamweaver rMX MX73 error maintaining program74Step 1 Analyze Requirements1. 2. system analyst user3. input, process, output data component IPO Chart input input output75Step 2 Design Solution (solution algorithm) Solution algorithm program logic Design Phase Information System Development Cycle Process Modeling (structured analysis & design)Object-oriented Modeling76Structured Design Top-down design (main routine) (subroutine) hierarchy chart structure chart 77Object-oriented Design class Encapsulation object78Control Structures 2. Sequence Control 79Control Structures1. Selection Control 2 If-then-else: 2 (true/false)Case: 1 n If-then-elseCase80Control Structures1. Repetition Control (Loop) 2 Do-While: Do-Until: Do-While 2 1 81Control StructuresRepetition Control (Loop)Do-While Control Structure Do-Until Control Structure82Step 3 Validate Design logic error 2 Logic error 2 Desk checkInspection83Desk check test data (Test data: ) 5 1. test data (input)2. (output) 3. test data 4. 3 25. 3,4 test data 84Inspection error Step 4: Implement Design error 85Step 4 Implement Design , code (coding), user interface Coding 2 Syntax Comment ()Extreme Programming: code 86Step 5 Test Solution error 2 Syntax Error: code (,) Run-time Error: 0 bug bug debugging87Step 6 Document Solution 2 code: dead code code system analyst 3 5 3

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