world geography africa

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2. 3.

  • Huge continent
  • 1/5 of the total landmass of the Earth
  • Dominated by extremes huge deserts and dense jungles
  • Longest River the Nile
  • Great Rift Valley center of original human activity


  • Arab Africa
    • area north of the Sahara
    • Mostly Muslim today strong ties to the Middle East
    • Small strip of land for development along the Med Sea
  • Sahara Desert
    • largest desert in the world
    • Separates black Africa from Arab Africa
    • Largely impenetrable, except for area around the Nile River
  • West Africa
    • largely grasslands best farming on the continent
    • Some jungle areas especially south of the Equator
    • Heavily populated region
    • Long legacy of slavery and the slave trade


  • Great Rift Valley
    • 4000 mile long rip in the land where the continents pulled apart millions of years ago
    • Includes the Red Sea and most of Africas major lakes
    • Area where first pre-humans appeared (Olduvai Gorge) oldest fossils may be 3.5 million years old
  • East Africa
    • Stretches from Ethiopia to South Africa
    • Strong ties to the east (India and Indonesia) through trade
    • Dominated by the Great Rift Valley
  • Central and South Africa
    • Flat grasslands and deserts on a plateau
    • Heavy diamond mines in the region
    • Vast mineral resources (gold, silver, copper and uranium)
    • Legacy of legalized segregation (Apartheid)in South Africa and brutal colonization by European powers in other parts of the region


  • Nile river
    • longest in the world (over 4000 miles)
    • Runs from the mountains of Ethiopia north to the Mediterranean Sea
    • Very fertile delta settlements along the Nile may be as old as 6000 years
    • River cuts through the boundary between Black Africa and Arab Africa
  • Congo River
    • Over 2750 miles long
    • Drains the Congo Basin: an area of dense jungles and rainforest
    • Not fully navigable due to large waterfalls and intense current
    • No delta: current actually flows out to sea


  • Most of Africa supports onlysubsistence farming(farming that only supports the nutritional needs of the farmer and his family with nothing left to sell)
  • Geographic factors such as climate and soil limit the ability of some regions in Africa to support wide scale agriculture

8. 9.

  • Egypt and Nubia
    • settlements along the Nile may be5000+ years old
    • Carved out an empire by about 2500 BC (multiple nations river cuts across the line between Black Africa and Arab Africa)
    • Legacy of this volatile relationship can be seen in the Sudan today
  • Bantu Migrations
    • About 4000 BC: black Africans from what is today Nigeria begin to filter down throughout the continent
    • Today most of Black Africa is populated by people who are ethnically and linguistically related, yet are members of hundreds of different African tribes

10. 11.

    • Attraction as a religion of salvation after 650 AD
    • Berber traders crossed the Sahara Desert and into West Africa
    • Estimates of 25% conversion by 1500 AD
    • Timbuktu in Mali becomes a center of Islamic learning with a great library
    • Islamic proverb states that "Salt comes from the north, gold from the south, but the word of God and the treasures of wisdom come from Timbuktu.

Mosque in Timbuktu

    • To Black Africa


  • Powerful west African kingdom in the bight of Africa unknown to Europeans until the arrival of the Portuguese in the 1450s
  • Specialized in three major trading items
    • Salt: used to preserve meat and milk
    • Gold: Ghana still produces vast amounts of gold
    • Slaves: simply another commodity in all ancient societies slave trade was in effect across the Sahara and into the Islamic world for hundreds of years before the Portuguese arrive

13. 14.

  • Portugal took the lead in the slave trade
  • Most slaves went to work in the New World on Sugar plantations
  • Europeans tried to enslave the American Indians first, but 90% died within the first 100 years of colonization mostly from smallpox
  • Africans had been exposed to the same diseases as Europeans and thus were largely immune to smallpox

15. European Imperialism in Africa 16. Pre-19c European Trade with Africa 17. Industrial Revolution Source for Raw Materials Markets for Finished Goods European Nationalism Missionary Activity Military & Naval Bases European Motives For Colonization Places to Dump Unwanted/ Excess Popul. Soc. & Eco. Opportunities Humanitarian Reasons European Racism White Mans Burden Social Darwinism 18. Africa in 1880 19.

  • Called by chancellor Bismarck of Germany to settle European issues regarding Africa
  • Major European powers divided Africa among themselves most of the modern boundaries were actually drawn by the Europeans without regard to tribal loyalties and hatreds
  • Africans were seen as savages
  • French and British got the most square miles, but much of this area was either already under French or British control, or was in the Sahara desert
  • Only Liberia left alone (it was seen as a US protectorate)
  • Ethiopia will remain independent they defeat the Italian army in 1896 Italians will eventually take Ethiopia in 1935

20. 21. Social Darwinism accepted science in the 1880s 22.

  • Poem written by British writer Kipling in 1899 that called on America to bring civilization to the savages of the third world
  • Very paternalistic
  • Kipling saw non-whites as lacking in sophistication
  • Call for the expansion of Christianity to save souls as well call will be heeded by missionaries around the world

The White Mans Burden Rudyard Kipling 23. The White Mans Burden? 24. Harvesting Rubber 25. Punishing Lazy Workers 26. Cecil Rhodes(1853-1902) The Colossus of Rhodes 27. African Independence Movements 28. Review Question

  • Name two changes the Europeans brought to Africa

29. Impact of Colonialism - Review

  • Economic
    • Cash Crop economies
    • Money Economies
  • Infrastructure
    • Roads, railroads and ports were built
    • Communication improved
    • Sewers
  • Education
    • European style schools taught Africans Western ideals
    • European languages taught Africans a common language
    • Africans w/ European Ed. Became the leaders of independence movements

30. Pan African Movements

  • African people began to reject European culture
  • Africans tried to move toward the unity of African people and
  • The celebration of African culture

31. World War I and World War II

  • European countries used African troops to help them fight the war
  • Africans believed if they were good enough to fightthey should also have a say in their own government
  • Africans provided resources for the war effort as well, showing that they could be useful to themselves

32. World War II

  • Africans saw Br. And Fr. lose battles
  • Europeans were no longer seen as invincible
  • Some military losses came at the hands of the Japanesea non-European power
  • WWII devastated the economies of imperialist powers
  • They were no longer strong enough to maintain their empires

33. Self Determination

  • End of WWII saw the beginning of the UN
  • The UN called for self-rule by all nations
  • This increased the desire of Africans for freedom